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CBSE Class-X Social Science

Sample Paper (By CBSE)

Time Allowed: 3 Hours, Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 28 questions in all. All questions are compulsory. ii. Marks are indicated against each question.
iii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iv. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
v. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
vi. Question numbers 26 are map questions 5 mark.

vii. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. Which power dominated the nation-building process in Germany?

OR

Which idea, other than economic exploitation, was behind French colonisation of

Vietnam? (1)

2. State an important characteristic of the oldest Japanese book, Diamond Sutra.

OR

State the hotly debated issue around which the novel Indulekha revolved. (1)

3. Wind energy received in abundance in western Rajasthan and Gujrat has not been so far utilized and developed to the maximum. It falls in which category of resources? (1)
4. Write any one prudential reason for which power sharing is desirable. 1

5. Identify the condition when both the parties in a barter economy have to agree to sell and

buy each other’s commodities? What is it called? (1)

6. A group of companies in India wishes to import high quality ACs from South Korea but have to pay a huge import tax on them which would make the ACs very expensive leading to a decline their sale. Ascertain the role of the import tax in this situation. (1)
7. Sania buys a packet of biscuits and finds detail about ingredients used, price, batch number etc. printed on it except the expiry date. Under which right of the consumers she can claim to know this information from the manufacturer? (1)
8. Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain.

OR

The French used school textbooks in Vietnam to justify colonial rule. Explain. (3)

9. “Not everyone welcomed the printed book, and those who did also had fears about it.” Justify the statement by giving three arguments.

OR

“Colonial administrators found „vernacular‟ novels a valuable source of information on native life and customs.” Prove the statement by giving three evidences. (3)
10. Explain any three reasons for which the multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition in the recent years. (3)
11. Mohan owns a farm in Uttar Pradesh; he wishes to cultivate either Jute or Sugarcane. He shall cultivate which crop out of these two keeping in mind the conditions required for their growth? Explain. (3)
12. Distinguish between the Unitary and Federal systems of government. (3)

13. “Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.” Elaborate upon the statement. (3)
14. Do democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens? Clarify. (3)

15. Mohit is 28 years of age, has 65 kg of body weight and is 1.4 meters tall. Calculate his BMI.

Find out whether he is under nourished or over weight. Why? (3)

16. Amrita is a government employee and belongs to a rich urban household whereas Rani works as a helper on a construction site and comes from a poor rural household. Both have a crisis at home and wish to take loan. Create a list of arguments explaining who between the two would successfully be able to get the loan from a formal source. Why?

(3)

17. How can the government ensure that globalization is fair and its benefits are shared in a better way by all? (3)
18. Create an advertisement for an online Consumer Awareness campaign to help consumers know their rights and save themselves from exploitation. (3)
19. Illustrate with examples that food offers many opportunities of long-distance cultural exchange. (5)

OR

“Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market in the country side.” Elucidate.

OR

“The function and the shape of the family were completely transformed by life in the industrial city.” Clarify the statement with regard to urbanization that happened in England in the 18th century. (5)
20. How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups in India develop a sense of collective belonging? Elucidate.

OR

How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside and drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribal communities? Elaborate. (5)
21. Describe the significance of Textile Industry in India with specific reference to Cotton industry. (5)
22. India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km at present. On what basis roadways have taken an edge over railways? Explain. (5)

OR

“The pace of change has been rapid in modern times and has impacted the ways of communication as well.” In light of the given statement explain the role of a variety of means of communication that are used in India in the currents times. (5)
23. Women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways even today.

Assess the statement by giving five suitable arguments. (5)

24. Political parties fill political offices and exercise political power. But they do this by performing a series of important functions. Describe any five of them.

OR

Political parties need to face and overcome a number of challenges in order to remain effective instruments of democracy. Write about any two of such challenges while citing appropriate examples. (5)
25. Rohan works in a bank as a clerk while Sumit works on a construction site as a labourer.

Describe difference in their conditions of work and judge the benefits and drawbacks of working in the respective sectors.

OR

Reema works as a shift technician in Mehta Textiles Ltd. whereas Shirin works as a Sales Executive in Kashvi Fashion Showroom. Identify the sectors of economy in which Reema and Shirin are working. Evaluate the role of each of these sectors in the Indian economy. (5)
MAP BASED QUESTIONS

26. Locate and label the place in the given outline political map of India:

a. The place where the Indian National Congress held its session in December 1920. (1) b. The place where Mahatma Gandhi organized Satyagraha for cotton mill workers. (1) c. a. Namrup Thermal Power Plant (1)
b. Tarapur Nuclear Power Plant (1)

c. Iron ore Mine (0.5)

d. Mica Mine (0.5)

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CBSE Class-X Social Science Sample Paper (By CBSE) Answer

1. Power of the Prussian State – History – Sub Unit 1.1
Theme 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Page 19

OR

Which idea, other than economic exploitation, was behind French colonisation of

Vietnam?

The idea of a ‘civilising mission’.

History – Sub Unit 1.1, Theme 2 – The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China, Page 34

2. Contained six sheets of text with woodcut illustrations

History – Sub Unit 1.3, Theme 1 – Print Culture and the Modern World, Page 154

OR

State the hotly debated issue around which the novel Indulekha revolved.

The hotly debated issue was the marriage practices of upper-caste Hindus in Kerala

History – Sub Unit 1.3, Theme 2 Novels, Society and History Page – 195

3. Potential Resources.

Geography – Theme 1 Resources and Development, Page – 2

4. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

Political Science – Chapter 1, Power Sharing, Page – 6

5. This is known as double coincidence of wants.

Economics – Chapter 3, Money and Credit – Page – 39

6. The Import tax is acting as a Trade Barrier.

Economics – Chapter 4, Globalization and Indian Economy – Page – 64

7. Consumers’ right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase.
Economics – Chapter 5, Consumer Rights – Page – 80

8. History – Sub Unit 1.1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Page 9

OR

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The French used school textbooks in Vietnam to justify colonial rule. Explain. History – Sub Unit 1.1
Theme 2 – The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Page 35

i. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
ii. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.

iii. It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. 1X3
iv. The Vietnamese were represented in the text books as primitive and backward

v. They were shown capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative.
vi. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam 1X3

9. History – Sub Unit 1.3, Theme 1 – Print Culture and the Modern World, Page 160

OR

“Colonial administrators found ‘vernacular’ novels a valuable source of information on native life and customs.” Prove the statement by giving three evidences. History – Sub Unit 1.3, Theme 2 Novels, Society and History Page – 191
i. Many were apprehensive of the effects that the easier access to the printed word and the wider circulation of books, could have on people’s minds
ii. It was feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might spread.
iii. If that happened the authority of ‘valuable’ literature would be destroyed.

iv. Such information was useful for them in governing Indian society, with its large variety of communities and castes.
v. As outsiders, the British knew little about life inside Indian households. The new novels in Indian languages often had descriptions of domestic life.
vi. They showed how people dressed, their forms of religious worship, their beliefs and practices etc.
10. Geography – Theme 3 Water Resources, Page -27

a. Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier

stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life.

b. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning.
c. The reservoirs that are created on the floodplains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over a period of time. 1X3
11. Geography – Theme 4, Agriculture, Page – 40

a. He should cultivate Sugarcane as the geographical conditions it requires are available in Uttar Pradesh.
b. Sugarcane grows well in hot and humid climate c. Requires a temperature of 21°C to 27°C
d. Needs annual rainfall between 75cm. and 100cm.

e. Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall.

f. It can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting. All these conditions are available in Uttar Pradesh. 0.5X6
12. Under the unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the sub-units

are subordinate to the central government. The central government can pass on orders to the provincial or the local government.
In federal system government and its powers are divided at Union and State level, in some countries even at local self-level. In this system, the central government cannot order the state government to do something.
In federal system State government has powers of its own for which it is not answerable to the central government. Both these governments are separately answerable to the people.
Or any other valid point. 1X3

If done in a tabular form, then three points each – 0.5X6

Political Science – Chapter 2, Federalism, Page – 15

13. First of all, the outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. Second, it depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are
not at the cost of another community.

Third, it depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority

community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. Political Science – Chapter 3, Democracy & Diversity, Page – 36
14. That democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view. That rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. 1+2
Political Science – Chapter 7, Outcomes of Democracy, Page – 96

i. Non-democratic regimes often turn a blind eye to or suppress internal social differences. Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes.
ii. But the example of Sri Lanka exhibits that a democracy must fulfil two conditions in order to achieve this outcome:
15. His BMI is 33.16

He is over weight

Because his BMI is more than 25

Economics – Chapter 1, Development, Page – 13

16. Amrita would successfully get the loan from a formal source because – Can do the documentation required
Can fulfil the terms of credit

Bank can be assured of repayment of loan by her through EMIs from her salary

Any other valid point 1X3

Economics – Chapter 3, Money and Credit – Page – 45/49

17. Economics – Chapter 4, Globalization and Indian Economy – Page – 70

a. Government’s policies must protect the interests, not only of the rich and the powerful, but all the people in the country. It should ensure that the labour laws are properly implemented and the workers get their rights.
b. It can support small producers to improve their performance till the time they become strong enough to compete. If necessary, the government can use trade and investment barriers.
c. It can negotiate at the WTO for ‘fairer rules’. It can also align with other developing countries with similar interests to fight against the domination of developed countries in the WTO.
18. Open ended question with a number of valid answers at least one example.

(The below mentioned example is given only for reference)
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Economics – Chapter 5, Consumer Rights – Pages – 80 -84

19. History – Sub Unit 1.2, Theme 1, The making of a Global World: Page – 78

OR

“Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market in the country side.” Elucidate. Answer to be assessed as a whole
History – Sub Unit 1.2, Theme 2, The Age of Industrialization Page – 105

OR

“The function and the shape of the family were completely transformed by life in the industrial city.” Clarify the statement with regard to urbanization that happened in England in the 18th century. Answer to be assessed as a whole
History – Sub Unit 1.2, Theme 3, Work, Life & Leisure Page – 135

a. Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled.

b. Even ‘ready’ foodstuff in distant parts of the world might share common origins like spaghetti and noodles or, perhaps Arab traders took pasta to fifthcentury Sicily, an island now in Italy.
c. Similar foods were also known in India and Japan, so the truth about their origins may never be known. Yet such guesswork suggests the possibilities of long-distance cultural contact even in the pre-modern world.

d. Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes, and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago.
e. These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent that would later become known as the Americas.
f. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
g. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not expand production within towns because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful.
h. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.
i. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns.
j. So they turned to the countryside. In the countryside poor peasants and artisans who had lost their common lands began working for merchants and produced goods and indirectly served the international market.
k. Ties between members of households loosened, and among the working class the institution of marriage tended to break down.
l. Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain, on the other hand, faced increasingly higher levels of isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for young children on low wages.
m. Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives, particularly among the lower social classes. However, many social reformers felt that the family as an institution had broken down, and needed to be saved or reconstructed by pushing these women back into the home.
n. The city encouraged a new spirit of individualism among both men and women, and a freedom from the collective values that were a feature of the smaller rural communities.
o. But men and women did not have equal access to this new urban space. As women

lost their industrial jobs and conservative people railed against their presence in public spaces, women were forced to withdraw into their homes.
20. This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.

But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. Answer to be assessed as a whole
History – Sub Unit 1.1, Theme 3, Nationalism in India, Page – 70 – 72

OR

How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside and drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribal communities? Elaborate. Both to be explained in detail. 2.5+2.5
History – Sub Unit 1.1, Theme 3, Nationalism in India, Page – 59-60 a. United struggles
b. History and fiction c. Folklore and songs d. Popular prints
e. Symbols and Icons, all played a part in the making of nationalism. To be explained in detail.
f. Struggle of Peasants in Awadh and formation of Kisan Sabhas g. Struggle of the Tribals in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh
21. Geography – Theme 6, Manufacturing Industries, Pages – 67 – 68

a. The Textile Industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy, because it contributes significantly to industrial production (14 per cent), employment generation (35 million persons directly – the second largest after agriculture) and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6 per cent).
b. It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP. It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.
c. In the early years, the Cotton Textile Industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. contributed towards its localization.
d. This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, 5cotton

boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
e. The industry by creating demands supports many other industries, such as, chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
22. Geography – Theme 7, Life lines of National Economy, Page – 82

OR

“The pace of change has been rapid in modern times and has impacted the ways of communication as well.” In light of the given statement explain the role of a variety of means of communication that are used in India in the currents times.
Means of Personal Communication in India – The Indian postal network is the largest in the world. It handles parcels as well as personal written communications. Cards and envelopes are considered first–class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
The second–class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport. To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.
India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia. Excluding urban places more than two-thirds of the villages in India have already been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) telephone facility. In order to strengthen the flow of information from the grass root to the higher level, the government has 5made special provision to extend twenty-four hours STD facility to every village in the country. There is a uniform rate of STD facilities all over India. It has been made possible by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology.
Mass communication in India – All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country. Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. for people of different age groups.
India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually. They are of

different types depending upon their periodicity. Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects. Largest numbers of newspapers published in the country are in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu.
India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films; video feature films and video short films. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.
Any other valid points 2+3

Geography – Theme 7, Life lines of National Economy, Page – 90

a. Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines

b. Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography, they can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas
c. Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances,
d. It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower
e. Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.
23. Political Science – Chapter 4, Gender, Religion & Caste, Pages – 42 – 43

a. The literacy rate among women is only 54 per cent compared with 76 percent among men. Similarly, a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies. Many of them drop out because parents prefer to spend their resources for their boys’ education.
b. The proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small.

On an average an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day. Yet much of her work is not paid and therefore often not valued.
c. The Equal Wages Act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work.

However, in almost all areas of work, from sports and cinema, to factories and fields, women are paid less than men, even when both do exactly the same work.
d. In many parts of India parents prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted before she is born. Such sex-selective abortion led to a decline in child sex ratio.
e. They are not safe even within their own home from beating, harassment and other

forms of domestic violence.

24. Any 5 points with explanation 1X5

Political Science – Chapter 6, Political Parties, Pages – 73 – 74

OR

Political parties need to face and overcome a number of challenges in order to remain effective instruments of democracy. Write about any two of such challenges while citing appropriate examples. Any two challenges to be explained with examples. 2.5+2.5
Political Science – Chapter 6, Political Parties, Pages – 83-84 a. Parties contest elections.
b. Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them.
c. Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. d. Parties form and run governments.
e. Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power, by voicing different views and criticising government for its failures or wrong policies.
f. Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues. g. Lack of internal democracy within parties
h. Challenge of dynastic succession

i. Growing role of money and muscle power in parties

j. Parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters

25. Rohan works in an organised sector; he will enjoy security of employment. He will be expected to work only a fixed number of hours. If he works more, he will have to be paid overtime by the employer. He will also get several other benefits from the employers like getting paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, gratuity etc. He is supposed to get medical benefits and, under the laws, the bank manager has to ensure facilities like drinking water and a safe working environment. When he will retire, he will get pension as well.
In contrast, Sumit works in the unorganised sector which is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed.
So, his job will be low-paid and often not regular. There will be no provision for overtime,

paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness etc. Employment is not secure.

He can be asked to leave without any reason when there is less work, such as, during some seasons. A lot also depends on the whims of his employer.
Answer to be assessed as a whole

Economics – Chapter 2, Sectors of Indian Economy, Page 31

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OR

Reema works as a Head Technician in Mehta Textiles Private Ltd. whereas Shirin works as a Sales Executive in Kashvi Fashion Showroom. Identify the sectors of economy in which Reema and Shirin are working. Evaluate the role of each of these sectors in the Indian economy.
Reema works in Secondary or Manufacturing Sector where as Shirin works in the

Tertiary or Service Sector

Role of Secondary/Manufacturing Sector –

This sector covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity, hence it is also called as industrial sector.
The product in this sector has to be made and therefore some process of manufacturing is essential, may be in a factory, a workshop or at home. For example, using cotton fibre from the plant, spinning yarn and weaving cloth etc.
This sector provides large scale employment and helps in earning huge revenue. It helps in the development of a nation.
Role of Tertiary/Service Sector –

These are activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or a support for the production process. For example, goods need to be transported by trucks or trains
and then sold in wholesale and retail shops; they have to be stored in godowns.

So, transport, storage, communication, banking, trade are some examples of tertiary activities. Since these activities generate services, the tertiary sector is also called the service sector. It also includes services of teachers, doctors, and those who provide personal services such as washer men, barbers, cobblers, lawyers, and people to do administrative and accounting works. In recent times, certain new services based on information technology such as internet cafe, ATM booths, call centres, software

companies etc. have become important.

Service sector contributes the most to the national economy these days and is further growing.
Economics – Chapter 2, Sectors of Indian Economy, Page 20

ANSWERS OF MAP BASED QUESTIONS

26. a. The place where the Indian National Congress held its session in December 1920 – Nagpur
b. Ahmedabad – To be located and labelled on the given map c. c. Iron ore Mine – Mayurbhanj
d. Mica Mine – Ajmer

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-1

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question numbers 26 are map questions with 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. “The aim of the Zollverein is to bind the Germans economically in to a nation”. Who wrote these words?

OR

Which one of the European trading company founded the port of FAIFO?

2. Why and when was Mazzini sent to exile?

OR

In which year Laos was added to French Indo-China?

3. What is Bewar?

4. What do you mean by federal division of power?

5. What are the criteria for the classification of economic activities?

6. In which year and by whom was the COPRA enacted?

7. What is NABARD?

8. Compare the views of liberals and conservatives.

OR

How would you explain the formation of French Indo-China?

9. Why martial law was imposed in Punjab during the month of April in 1919?

10. What is meant by two types of natural resources? Give one example of each.

11. What do you know about Krishna-Godavari dispute?

12. “Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries.” In the light of the above statement, mention a few basis of social division in India.
13. What is meant by defection in democracy? Explain.

14. ‘Transparency is the most important feature of democracy.’ Analyze.

15. What facts shows that modern forms of money are different from the early forms of money?
16. Do you think price regulation is needed in India? Give two arguments in favour of price regulation.
17. How are the three sectors of economy interdependent?

18. What developmental goals encourage women to work outside their home?

19. How was the food problem solved in Britain after scrapping of the Corn Laws?

OR

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Explain the five causes of Industrial Revolution in England.

OR

Ties between members of households loosened in Britain in the era of industrialization. Explain the statement.
20. Explain the different effects of print revolution.

OR

In what ways was the novel in colonial India useful for Indians, the colonizers as well as the nationalists?
21. Why are cotton and textile industry spread all over the India? Explain five reasons with suitable examples.
22. Explain the different forms of occurrence of minerals.

OR

‘Railways are the principal mode of transportation in India’. Explain.

23. Explain the features of third tier of the rural government.

24. Can you explain any five challenges and problems faced by Indian Democracy?

OR

Examine the basic features of the caste system prevailing in India.

25. Explain the factors which facilitate Globalisation.

OR

“Be careful! That’s our world you are playing with! Some day you’ll have to pay a price!” How would you prioritize the facts behind this warning?
26. Two features A and B are marked in the given map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
A. Headquarter of Eastern Railways

B. Headquarter of Northern Railways.

Locate and label the place in the given map of India:

C. Mumbai Church gate Headquarter Western railway

D. The place where Congress Session was held in September 1920

E. The place associated with Civil Disobedience Movement.

CBSE Class 10 – Social Science

Sample Paper-1

Solutions

1. Friedrich List, Professor of Economics at the University of Tubingen in Germany, wrote these words.

OR

The port of FAIFO was founded by Portuguese merchants.

2. Mazzini was sent to exile for attempting a revolution in 1831.

OR

In the year 1893 Laos was added to French Indo-China.

3. Bewar is primitive form of cultivation practised by Baiga tribe. It is called Dahiya in MP.

4. Power shared at different levels of government

5. A. Nature of economic activities

B. Ownership of assets

C. Term of employment

6. COPRA was enacted by the Central government in 1986.

7. NABARD is National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development.

8. The comparison of liberal and conservative views are as follows:

Liberals
Conservatives

1. Most of the follwers of liberalism were people from middle classes.
1. Conservatives were the people who belonged to upper class or associated with them.

2. Liberals stood for the end of autocracy. They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary govenment. But they did not believe in universal adult franchise.
2. They supported autocracy and were non-believer of a representative government,

3. They favoured radical changes like – abolition of clerical privileges. 3. They favoured only those which could strengthen autocratic monarchies of

Europe.

OR

One of the most visible forms of French control was military. French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 by the mid 1880s, they had established a firm grip over the northern region. After the Franco-Chinese war, the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam and in 1887 the French Indo-China was formed. In the following decades the French sought to consolidate their position in Vietnam.
9. The martial law was imposed in Punjab because Rowlatt Act was introduced by the

British Government. Against this act rallies were organized in various cities, workers

went on strike in railway workshops and shops closed down. British Government decided to clamp down on the nationalist leaders. Local leader were picked up from Amritsar. Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi. On 10 April, the police in Amritsar
fired upon a peaceful procession, provoke widespread attacks on banks post offices and railway stations. Due to this martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.
10. All gifts of nature which are useful in making the life of human beings comfortable and worth living are known as natural resources.
Their two main types are: biotic and abiotic resources.

Forests and animals are biotic resources while land water and soil are abiotic natural resources.
11. The Krishna-Godavari dispute is based on the objections raised by the governments of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The reason behind this dispute was diversion of more water flow at Koyna by the Maharashtra government for irrigation and a hydro electricity project. It was felt that this would lessen the flow in their states which would have adverse affects on industry and agriculture.
12. A. Social division on the basis of caste.

B. Social division on the basis of religion. C. Social division on the basis of language. D. Social division on the basis of region.
E. Social division on the basis of community.

F. Social division on the basis of Economic status.

13. Defection in politics means changing political party to another party for some personal benefits. It means changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected

to a different party. It happens when a legislature, after having been elected from a particular party leaves it and joins in other party. To prevent this custom of changing party legislature of India made a law that is anti defection law. The constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. Now the law says that if any MLA and MP changes parties, he or she will lose seat in the legislature. The new law has brought defection down and has made dissent even more difficult.
14. i. Democracy ensures that decision making will be based on norms and procedures.

ii. So, a citizens who wants to know if a decision was taken through correct procedures can find this out.
iii. Citizens have the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This why transparency is meant to be the most important feature of democracy.
15. A. Modern forms of money are includes currency-paper ,notes and coins.

B. Unlike the things that were used as money earlier, modern currency is not made of precious metal such as gold, silver and copper.
C. This currency vanishes barter system , they are neither of everyday use.

16. Yes, there is a need of regulating prices in India. The two benefits of price regulation in

India are:

i. It checks market exploitation: Market exploitation takes place in various ways. For example, traders sometime raise the prices to earn more profit when shopkeepers weigh less than what they should or when traders add charges that were not mentioned before, etc. Such types of traders earn huge profit by exploiting the innocent poor consumers.
ii. It checks market manipulation: Companies with huge wealth, power and reach manipulates the market. At times false information is passed on through the media, and other sources to attract consumers. For example, a company for years sold powder milk for babies all over the world as the most scientific product claiming this to be better than mother’s milk. It took years of struggle before the company was forced to accept that it had been making false claims.

Above discussed reasons necessitates the need for regulation of traders and keeping a close watch on them by the government.

17. A. There are many activities that are undertaken by directly using natural resources.

When we produce a good by exploiting natural resources, it is an activity of primary

sector.

B. The secondary sector covers activity in which the natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity. It is the next step after primary. For example by using sugarcane as a raw material we make sugar.
C. The third category of activities falls under tertiary sector. These activities help in the development of the primary sector and secondary sectors. These activities, by themselves, do not produce goods but they are an aid or a support for the production process. For example transport and communication.
18. i. The dignity of women in household and society increases if women do paid work.

ii. When there is respect for women, the members of the household are willing to share housework.
iii. A person accepts that women working outside their homes earn a livelihood.

iv. A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.
19. After scrapping of the Corn Laws, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. So Britain began to import food grains from rest of the world.
i. Around the world, especially in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia, land was cleared and food production expanded to meet the British demand.
ii. There had been complex changes in labour movements patterns, capital flow, ecology and technology.
iii. Crops were not grown by a peasant tilling his own land but by an agricultural worker.

Food came from thousands of mile away.

iv. Food and other essential commodities were transported by railways and by ships manned by low paid workers from southern Europe, Asia, Africa and Caribbean islands

OR

The five causes of Industrial Revolution in England are:

i. Inventions: A series of invention in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process and paved the way for industrialization in England.

ii. Overseas trade: There had been enormous expansion in overseas trade of Britain.

This was one of the major causes of technological revolution.

iii. Surplus benefit: The vast amount of capital which England had accumulated out of profits of her growing trade enabled her to make large expenditure on the machinery and building. This led to new technological developments.
iv. Geographical location: The geographical location of England greatly helped in industrial revolution. It had extensive coastline and many navigable rivers when water was the easiest means of transportation.
v. Factories: In the early nineteenth century, factories increasingly became an intimate part of the English landscape. So visible were the imposing new mills, so magical seemed to be the power of new technology, that contemporaries were dazzled.

OR

Ties between members of household loosened and among the working class the institution of marriage tended to break down.The function and the shape of the family
got completely transformed by life in the industrial city. Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain faced increasingly higher levels of isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for young children on low wages. Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives, particularly among the lower social classes. However, many social reformers felt that the family as an institution had broken down, and needed to be saved or reconstructed by pushing these women back into the home. Moreover, the new spirit of ‘individualism’ among both men and women in urban household dispensed freedom from the collective values that were a feature of the smaller rural communities. But by the twentieth century, the urban family transformed partly by the experience of the valuable wartime meet war demands. The family now consisted of much smaller units. By now, the family became the heart of a
new market – of goods and services, and of ideas.

20. The effects of print revolution are as follows:

i. Printing reduced the cost of books.

ii. The time and labour required to produce each book came down and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.
iii. Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of debate and discussion.

iv. Print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped in spreading the new ideas that led to the reformation.
v. Due to print people became aware and they started questioning the authorities. vi. Print culture was responsible for the French Revolution.
vii. The writings of the enlightened thinkers provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism.

OR

A. Source of Information: Colonial administrators found the ‘vernacular’ novels a valuable source of information on native life and customs. Such information was useful for them in governing Indian society, with its large and a variety of communities and castes.As outsiders, the British knew little about life inside Indian households. The novels in Indian languages often had descriptions of domestic life.
B. Novels and colonialism: The novel originated in Europe at a time when it was colonizing the rest of the world. The early novel contributed to colonialism by marking the readers feel they were part of a superior community of fellow colonialists.
C. The novel and nation making: The history written by colonial historians tended to depict Indians as weak, divided, and dependent on the British. These histories could not satisfy the tastes of the new Indian administrators and intellectuals. Nor did the traditional Puranic stories of the past- peopled by gods and demons, filled with the fantastic and the supernatural-seem convincing to those educated and working under the English system. Such minds wanted a new view of the past that would show that Indians could be independent minded and had been so in history. The novel provided a solution. In it, the nation could be imagined in a past that also featured historical characters, places, events and dates.
D. Novels and struggle for freedom: The imagined nation of the novel was so powerful that it could inspire actual political movements. Banking’s Anandamath (1882) is-a novel about a secret Hindu militia that fights Muslims to establish a Hindu Kingdom. It was a novel that inspired many kinds of freedom fighters.
E. Novels and common sharing novelists included: Various classes in the novel in such a way that they could be seen to belong to a shared world. Premchand’s novels, for instance, are filled with all kinds of powerful characters drawn from all levels of

society. In his novels you meet aristocrats and landlords, middle level peasants and landless labourers, middle class professionals and people from the margins of society. The women characters are strong individuals, especially those who come from the lower classes and are not modernised.
21. The cotton and textile industry is the oldest industry in India. It spread over both the rural and urban areas all over the country during colonial rule.
i. In rural areas the handloom industry is doing its work while in urban areas the textile mills and factories work day and night.
ii. Wide market and the availability of raw material, transport, banking and electricity facilities in almost all parts of the country have led to decentralization of cotton mills in different parts of the country.
iii. Weaving is highly decentralized to provide scope for incorporating traditional skills and designs of weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery etc.
iv. Textile industry is a labour intensive industry so a large number of people are required in different stages of its working such as weeding, spinning, dyeing,
weaving, designing, printing and packing. As labour is easily and cheaply available in all parts of the country so textile mills spread all over India.
22. The difference forms of occurrence of minerals are:

i. In igneous and metamorphic rocks: In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in cracks, crevices, faults and joints. The smaller occurrence is called veins and the larger are called lodes. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.
ii. In sedimentary rocks: In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds and layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods.
iii. Through decomposition of surface rocks: Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
iv. Alluvial deposits: Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits.
v. In ocean water and ocean beds: The ocean water contains vast quantities of minerals. Common salt, magnesium and bromine are largely derived from ocean

water. The ocean beds too are rich in manganese nodules.

OR

Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. There are various reasons behind it.
i. At first place, Railways also make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances.
ii. Apart from an important means of transport the Indian Railway has been great integrating force for more than 150 years.
iii. Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.
iv. The Indian Railways have a network of 7,031 stations spread over a route length of

63,221 km. with a fleet of 7817 locomotives, 5321 passenger services vehicles, 4904 other coach vehicles and 228,170 wagons as on 31 March 2004.
23. The features of the third tier of rural government are:

A. Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayat Raj. Each Village or group of villages in some state has a Gram Panchayat.
B. This is a council consisting of several ward members called Panchs and a president called Sarpanch. They are directly elected by the adult population living in the ward or village.
C. The Panchyats works under the overall supervision of the Gram Sabha. All the voters of the village are the members of Gram Sabha.
D. The local government structure goes right up to the district level. A few Gram panchayat are grouped together to form Sanchayat Samiti or Block. The members of all the Block are elected by the panchayat members of the area.
E. All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila

Parishad.

24. A. Challenge of expansion: Indian democracy is facing the challenge of expansion. This challenge of Indian democracy involves the practical aspects like-ensuring grater power to local governments, an extension of federal principals to all the units of the federation, the inclusion of women and minority groups.
B. The problem of Casteism: Casteism playing a major role in the Indian politics. There

are many castes based pressure groups and interest groups. All these influences those who are in power. Casteism is also harmful to the unity of the country.
C. The problem of Communalism: Communalism has also is the negative implication in Indian Politics. It leads to intolerance, suspicion, and fear towards members of the other communities. Besides this, there are various types of communal violence in the society.
D. The problem of Corruption: This problem of Indian democracy is related to the criminal record and personal possession of politicians. Corruption is an obstacle to the development of Indian economy.
E. The problem of Criminalization: Money and muscle power is used during elections.

Here is a lack of electoral ethics and insufficient representation of various sections of society like minorities and women.

OR

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A. It is a hierarchical occupational division of the society.

B. It has four main divisions- Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. C. It is hereditary.
D. The members of the same caste group formed a social community that followed similar occupations, married within the caste and did not mingle with the other caste.
E. The caste system was based on the exclusion of and discrimination against the

‘outcaste’ groups that were subjected to the inhuman practice of untouchability.

25. The factors which facilitate Globalisation are:

a. Rapid improvement in Technology which has stimulated the process of Globalization.. b. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
c. Pressure from international organizations like WTO and World Bank. d. Improvement in transportation and communication facilities.
e. Dependence of Developing countries upon Developed Countries

OR

“Be careful! That’s our world you are playing with! Some day you’ll have to pay a price!” These are the words said by a kid to the owner of MNCs when he said. “Globalization is fun”. Following are some of the facts behind this warning:
a. This indicates that Globalisation is a process of earning huge profit by the MNCs. The

26.

main motive the MNCs is to earn huge profit. To achieve this motive, these MNCs

exploit the resources of earth without caring environment.

b. MNCs put pressure on the governments of the developing countries to mend their policies according to them.
c. Some critics said globalisation is a form of neo-colonialism.

d. The manufacturing units of the MNCs are the major cause of spreading pollution in the environment.
e. Globalisation widens the gap between rich and poor. One day all the effects of globalisation will bring disaster in the world. The people of the whole world will suffer from it.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-02

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question numbers 26 are map questions with 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. Name the Irish catholic who revolted against the British domination.

OR

Name the French officer who led an attack against the ruling Nguyen dynasty.

2. Who was the guiding force for the unification of England in 1707?

OR

In which year the final link of trans Indo-China rail network was completed?

3. Name the season during which watermelon, muskmelon and cucumber are produced?

4. Which type of power sharing is called checks and balances?

5. What is the direction of change in the importance of different sectors in regard to GDP in

India?

6. Which consumer’s right enables consumers to go in the consumers courts?

7. Give one reason why the banks and cooperatives are popular lending agencies?

8. Name the female allegory that represents France. Describe her main characteristics.

OR

How did the battle against French colonial education become a part of the battle against colonialism and for independence in Vietnam? Explain.
9. “Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of unified national movement” Can you explain that opportunity.
10. Why is resource planning essential?

11. “Multipurpose projects have failed to achieve the purpose for which they were built”.

Justify the statement by giving reasons.

12. Give example to prove that social division of one kind or another exist in most of the countries.
13. Which is the recently formed national party? Examine its objectives and present status.

14. How is democratic government known as responsive government? Explain.

15. Is there any other means to make payments without using cash? Explain.

16. How do logos & certification on cover help the consumers to buy standardized products?

17. Why is it necessary to give protection and support to unorganized sector workers?

Explain.

18. Explain any three examples of what factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
19. Why is it said that India played a crucial role in the nineteenth century world economy?

Explain

OR

Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns?

OR

State the characteristics of the ancient cities.

20. How did the printing technology give women a chance to share their feeling with the world outside?

OR

Examine the popularity of novels among women during eighteenth century.

21. What is the contribution of industry to national economy in India? Compare it with the

East Asian Countries. What is the desired growth & present position of industry in GDP?

22. Distinguish between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.

OR

Which agency provides the air travel service in north-eastern and off-shore areas of

India? Explain why air transport is preferred in north-eastern states of India.

23. What policies strengthened the federalism of India?

24. Do you have any source to get the information about the working of government?

Explain.

OR

Is caste system is coming to an end? Explain.

25. Explain the factors which facilitate Globalisation.

OR

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How would flexibility in labour laws help Multinational Companies?

26. Two features A and B are marked in the given map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
A. Biggest port of India

B. Oldest artificial Port

Locate and label the place in the given map of India

C. International Airport Amritsar.

D. place where the session of Congress held in 1929. E. The state to which Gudem rebels belonged.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-02

Solution

1. Wolfe Tone is the Irish catholic who revolted against the British domination.

OR

Francis Garnier was the French officer who led an attack against the ruling Nguyen dynasty.
2. The English Parliament was the guiding force for the unification of England in 1707.

OR

The final link of trans Indo-China rail network was completed in 1910.

3. Watermelon, muskmelon and cucumber are produced in Zaid season .

4. Horizontal distribution of power

5. The percentage share of primary sector in India’s GDP has fallen whereas the percentage share of secondary and tertiary sectors has risen.
6. The right to represent enables consumers to go in the consumers courts.

7. Banks and cooperatives are very popular for lending because these agencies provide loan at a very low interest rates.
8. The female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. Marianne was the female allegory who represented France. Following are her characteristics:
i. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
ii. Her statutes were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
iii. Her images were marked on coins and stamps of 1850s.

OR

The battle against French colonial education became a part of the battle against colonialism and for independence in Vietnam in several ways:
i. Like other colonial powers, the French tried to open their own schools in Vietnam so

that they could get cheaper clerks and educated local labour forces. But to tell the Vietnamese that they were doing so because to civilize them was nothing less than insulting them. Such thing was greatly resisted by the people.
ii. The French Government tried to systematically dismantle the traditional system especially by adopting only the French language as the medium of instruction. Bust such a policy was resisted by the people who had great attachment for the local Vietnamese languages.
iii. French tried to force their own culture on the students and make them look modern by cutting their hair. It enraged the people because the Vietnamese people traditionally kept long hairs.
9. That opportunity was ‘Khilafat Issue’. The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the ottoman emperor-the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khailifa). To defend the khalifa’s temporal power, a khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919. A young generation of Muslims leaders likes the brothers Muhammad Ali
and Shaukat Ali, Began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of unified national movement.
10. As the resources are limited, so their planning is quite necessary so that we can use them properly and at the same time save them for our coming generations.
It is also essential for the balanced development of the country. A resource planning is also necessary to save their exploitation or unlawful exploitation by the unscrupulous elements of the society.
11. A. These dams were constructed to control floods but sometimes they are unable to control floods.
B. Regulating and damming of rivers affect the natural flow of rivers causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir.
C. Dams also create conflict between the states and people, wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources.
12. A. It does not matter whether the country is small or big. India is a vast country with many communities.India is famous for its diversity.
B. Belgium is a small country with many communities India is famous for its diversity. C. Even the Muslim countries are divided into Shias and Sunnies.

D. Countries like Germany and Sweden which are considered homogeneous societies are undergoing rapid change because of migration from other parts of the world. Thus social division exists in all parts of the world.
13. Nationalist Congress Party is the recently formed national party after the split in congress in 1999.
A. Objectives of NCP: This party advocates democracy, Gandhian secularism,

equality, justice and federalism. Wants that high offices in government be confined to natural born citizens of the country.
B. Present Status: A major party in Maharashtra and has a significant presence in Meghalaya, Manipur and Assam. A coalition partner in the state of Maharashtra in alliance with the Congress since 2004, a member of the United Progressive Alliance.
14. A. It produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs of and expectations of the citizens.
B. Democracy is based on the idea of deliberations and negations.

C. Democratic government is attentive to the needs and demands of the people. D. A government which is able to respond to grievance faster is able to avoid
confrontation and provide good governance.

15. Yes, we have many other options to payment, like cheques instead of cash.

A. For payment through cheque, the payer who has an account in the bank makes out a cheque for a specific amount to conduct business.
B. A cheque is a signed valuable paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from the person to whose name the cheque has been made.
C. It can be called cashless fund transaction.

16. The logos and certification on cover help consumers get assured of the quality while purchasing the goods and services because these are issued by the government organizations. The organizations that monitor and issue these certificates allow producers to use their logos provided if they follow certain quality standards. For some products that affect health and safety of consumers or of products of mass consumption like LPG cylinders, food colours and additives, cement packaged drinking water, it is mandatory on the part of the producers to get goods certified by government organizations
17. A. The employers in the unorganized sector refuse to follow laws that protect the laborers. There is a great need of protecting them from exploitation.

B. The workers in the unorganized sector are not paid a fair wage and hence require protection.
C. The Jobs of the workers in the unorganized sector are also not secure, hence they need protection.
D. The workers in the unorganized sector get no other benefits like provident funds, gratuity, paid leaves, medical benefits etc. and hence they require protection of their livelihood.
18. Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well.
i. Money cannot buy us pollution-free environment.

ii. Money cannot buy us a disease-free life and might not be able to get protection from infectious disease.
iii. Besides money, people also like to have equal treatment in the society, freedom, dignity and honour in their life, which money cannot buy them.
19. It is said that India played a crucial role in the nineteenth century world economy because in the nineteenth century, Britain was a major economic power, she had built a trade network worldwide and had a huge income.
i. The value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. Thus, Britain had trade surplus with India.
ii. There were some countries where Britain was spending more on her imports and earning deals from exports, Britain had to meet trade deficit with these countries.
iii. Britain used her trade surplus with India to balance her trade deficits with other countries.
iv. Britain’s trade surplus with India also helped her to pay the so called home charges.

Thus, by helping Britain balance its deficits, India played a crucial role in the late nineteenth century world economy.

OR

The poor peasants and artisans in the countryside began to work for the merchants from the towns because of the following reasons:
i. Open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. ii. Tiny plots of land did not provide enough for the family.
iii. By working for merchants, peasants could remain in the countryside and cultivate

their land.

iv. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their income from cultivation.
v. The family labour resources could be fully used.

OR

The ancient cities had distinct features like:

i. Towns and cities that first appeared along river valleys, such as Ur, Nippur and

Mohenjo-Daro, were large in scale than other human settlements.

ii. Asian cities could develop only when an increase in food supplies made it possible to support a wide range of non-food products.
iii. Cities were often the centers of political power, administrative network, trade and industry, religious institution and intellectual activity.
iv. These cities supported various social groups such artisans, merchants and priests.

20. Due to print revolution women became an important as reader as well as writers. It following gave sufficient opportunities to the women to open themselves up to the outer world:
i. Penny magazine and manuals were especially meant for women were published, which included teaching proper behavior and housekeeping.
ii. When novels began to be written in the nineteenth century women were seen as important readers.
iii. Getting influenced they after reading started writing novels. Some of the best-known novelists were: Jane Austin, The Bronte Sisters and George Eliot.
iv. Their writings became important in defining a new type of women and gave them a new identification – a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.

OR

A. The most exiting element of the novel was the involvement of women. The 18th century saw the middle classes become more prosperous.
B. Women got more leisure to read as well as write novels.

C. Novels began exploring the world of women-their emotions and identities, their experiences and problems.

D. Images of women reading silently in the privacy of the room became common in

European paintings.

E. When women began writing novels many people feared that they would now neglect their traditional role as wives and mothers and homes would be disorder.
F. The novels of Jane Austen give Us a glimpse of the world of women in genteel rural society in early-nineteenth century Britain. They make us think about a society which encouraged women to look for ‘good’ marriages, and find wealthy or propertied husbands. The first sentence of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice states : ‘It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.’
21. The contribution of industry to the national economy has not been satisfactory for the last two decades. It has stagnated at 17 percent for mining quarrying, electricity and gas. In comparison to India’s 17 percent share in GDP, the East Asian countries have contributed 25 to 35 per cent to their GDP. The desired growth over the next decade is 12 percent. At present growth rate is about 9 to 10 percent and it is expected that we can achieve the growth rate of 12 per cent by some efforts like setting up of the National
Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC).

22.

Conventional
Non- Conventional

1. Conventional sources of energy are non- renewable sources of energy.
1. Non-conventional sources of energy are renewable sources of energy.

2. These sources get depleted with its use.
2. These resources can be used again and again.

3. These are traditional sources of energy.
3. These are recently developed sources of energy.

4. These causes large scale pollution.
4. These are environment friendly resources.

5. For example : Coal, petroleum, diesel, etc.
5. For example: Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy etc.

OR

Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas

Commission in its off- shore operations, to the north-eastern states.

Because of the following reasons the air transport is preferred in the North-Eastern states of India:
i. These states mostly lies in inaccessible hilly areas and have difficult terrains. ii. Dense forests are found in this region.
iii. Big rivers and dissected relief are found in this area.

iv. There is heavy rainfall and frequent floods in these areas.

Due to the above reasons it is very difficult to construct roads and lay railway lines in these areas.
23. The features of the third tier of rural government are:

A. Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayat Raj. Each Village or group of villages in some state has a Gram Panchayat.
B. This is a council consisting of several ward members called Panchs and a president called Sarpanch. They are directly elected by the adult population living in the ward or village.
C. The Panchyats works under the overall supervision of the Gram Sabha. All the voters of the village are the members of Gram Sabha.
D. The local government structure goes right up to the district level. A few Gram panchayat are grouped together to form Sanchayat Samiti or Block. The members of all the Block are elected by the panchayat members of the area.
E. All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila

Parishad.

24. A. RTI is a source to get the information about the working of government in India. The Right to information is a good example of a law that empowers the people to find out what is happening in government and thereby raise their voices if anything unfair happened.
B. This act enabled people to know about every detail of any programs from the levels of planning to implementations. By this, they can know lapses, misappropriation etc. of any officials and file a complaint and corruption and impose strict penalties.
C. This law helps to know who has taken the decision, was the decision taken as per the established norms and procedures. So the executive has to think twice before taking any biased decisions.

D. Right to Information Act is to empower the citizens, promote transparency and accountability in the working of the Government, contain corruption, and make our democracy work for the people in real sense.It goes without saying that an informed citizen is better equipped to keep necessary vigil on the instruments of governance and make the government more accountable to the governed.
E. The Act is a big step towards making the citizens informed about the activities of the

Government.

OR

The caste system has kept Indian society intact. But at present it is coming to an end because of following reasons:
A. Many social reform movements were started in the 19th century like Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj etc. They preached against the caste system.
B. With the advent of means of transport and communication, people begin to move from place to place in search of work and in the new society. There they work with people of other castes. It leads to the decline of another feature of keeping relations with one’s own caste.
C. In the past religious education was given and it was confined only to higher three castes. But with the changing time, religious education came to an end.
D. Everyone begins to get a modern education which led to the decline of discrimination. E. Giving occupation to the child is one of the main features of the caste system. But due
to industrialization and modernization, new occupations came into being. People begin to adopt new occupations which have led to the end of this feature of the caste system.
25. The factors which facilitate Globalisation are:

a. Rapid improvement in Technology which has stimulated the process of Globalization.. b. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
c. Pressure from international organizations like WTO and World Bank. d. Improvement in transportation and communication facilities.
e. Dependence of Developing countries upon Developed Countries

OR

i. In the absence of strict laws most of the companies employ workers on temporary

26.

basis so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year.

ii. Workers also have to put in very long working hours and work night shifts on a regular basis during the peak seasons.
iii. Wages are low and workers are forced to work overtime to make both ends meet. iv. To earn huge profits employers try to cut the labour cost by different ways.
v. Flexibility in labour laws have helped the companies to increase their income granted by not paying reasonable wages and other benefits such as provident fund insurance etc.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-03

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory. ii. Marks are indicated against each question.
iii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iv. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
v. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
vi. Question number 26 are map question with 5 marks.

vii. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. When was the customs union or zollverein founded?

OR

Who wrote the book ‘The History of the Loss of Vietnam’?

2. Name the kings who had been restored to power after Vienna Congress by the conservatives.

OR

Which movement gained popularity in the Mekong delta region of Vietnam?

3. In which part of India is Jhumming practiced in India?

4. Mention one step which was taken by Sri Lankan Government to create Majoritarianism.

5. Why is tertiary sector also termed as service sector?

6. Which institution gives ISI marks?

7. Write a special feature of the Gupta coins.

8. How did nationalism and the idea of nation-states emerge? Explain.

OR

Why did French policy makers educate the people of Vietnam?

9. Who was M.R. Jayakar?

10. Why does the net sown area vary from one state to another?

11. How dams are responsible for creating conflicts between people of same society? Explain with example.
12. Explain the outcome of politics of social division under the heading of “Raising of demand by political leader”.
13. Which national party draws inspiration from the teachings of Mahatma Phule and

Periyar? Write any three points related to this party.

14. Why is democratic government known as legitimate government?

15. What motives are there to deposit money in the bank by depositors?

16. “A consumer has the right to get compensation depending on the degree of the damage”.

Support this statement with an example.

17. What is the criterion to classify an economic activity as tertiary sector activity? Explain.

18. Why is literacy essential for the economic development? Explain.

19. Explain any three effects of the Great Depression 1929-1930 on the United States.

OR

Describe any five characteristics of the proto-industrialization system.

OR

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Why did the population of London multiplied in the late 19th and 20th centuries?

20. How did the ideas of scientists and philosophers become more accessible to common people after the beginning of print revolution in Europe?

OR

‘Novels helped in creating a sense of social awareness in India’. Explain.

21. What facts interpret that cotton and textile industry of India occupies a unique position?

22. Why there is a need of conservation of minerals?

OR

Name any two navigational rivers of India. In which part of India inland waterways are widely used? Write two merits and demerits of inland water transport.
23. Critically examine the concept of decentralization in India.

24. How would you explain that an ordinary citizen can play a very constructive role in the deepening of democracy?

OR

“The old notions of caste hierarchy are breaking down in India”- Support the answer statement with suitable examples.
25. “WTO is not making rules fairly”. Explain the term with an example.

OR

Explain the factors which facilitate Globalisation.

26. Two features A and B are marked in the given map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
A. Deepest land locked port

B. Tidal port

Locate and label the place in the given map of India. C. Tuticorin Port.
D. The place where the Indian National Congress session held in 1927. E. Place where non-cooperation movement was called off.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-03

Solution

1. The customs union or zollverein was founded in 1834.

OR

Phan Boi Chau wrote the book ‘The History of the Loss of Vietnam’.

2. Bourbon Kings had been restored to power after Vienna Congress by the conservatives.

OR

Hoa Hao movement gained popularity in the Mekong delta region of Vietnam.

3. Jhumming is practiced in North-eastern parts of India

4. In 1956, an act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the official language.

5. The tertiary sector is termed as service sector because tertiary sector provides support service to primary sectors and secondary sectors.
6. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) gives ISI marks.

7. Gupta coins were not properly circular in shape and the picture of the king or a person was shown on it.
8. The idea of nationalism and nation-states emerged among the culturally-diverse and regional and social groups of European continent. With the formation of European society, due to industrialization, the new middle class emerged. It comprised labour, working class population, industrialization, businessmen, professionals etc.
The educated and liberal population among the middle class thought to unite the culturally compatible sections of European society. Hence, they thought of nationalism and this led to the emergence of the idea of nation-states.

OR

The French policy makers wanted to educate the people of Vietnam because of the following reasons:
i. They wanted to get cheap clerks to help them in the different fields of administration. ii. The French felt, like many Europeans, that imperialist expansion has a noble aspect
too. According to them it is a way of bringing civilization to the backward people of

the world. It is the duty of the advanced Europeans to introduce the modern ideas in their colonies.
iii. Like the British in India, the French claimed that they are bringing modern civilization to the Vietnamese.
9. M.R. Jayakar was member of Hindu Mahasahba, who strongly opposed the efforts of compromise during all Parties Conference in 1928.
10. The net sown area varies from one state to another because:

i. There are wide variations in the pattern of net sown area from one state to another state.
ii. If we compare Haryana and Punjab with Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and

Andaman and Nicobar Islands there is a great disparity.

iii. In Punjab and Haryana, the net sown area is 80 per cent of the total area but in other mentioned states it is less than 10 per cent of the total area.
iv. The reasons for this differences are many, e.g., climate, soil, relief, irrigation facilities, etc.
11. A. The dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources.
B. In Gujarat, the Sabarmati-basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot when the higher priority was given to water supply in the urban areas, particularly during droughts.
12. A. It depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community.

B. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
C. The Sinhala leaders of Sri Lanka wanted to fulfil their demands at the cost of other communities and this led to a civil war.
D. In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.
13. The party that draws inspiration from the ideas of Mahatma Phule is BSP. (Bahujan

Samaj Party). Policies of BSP are :
1. It seeks to represent and secure power for the bahujan samaj which includes the

Dalits, Adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities,

2. It stands for the cause of securing interests and welfare of the oppressed people.

3. The Party shall regard its ideology as a movement for ending exploitation of the weaker sections and suppression of the deprived through social and economic change in keeping with the above stated chief aim, and its political activity and participation in governance as an instrument of furthering such a movement and bringing in such
a change.

4. All citizens of India being equal before law are entitled to be treated as equal in true sense and in all matters and all walks of life, and where equality does not exist it has to be fostered and where equality is denied it has to be upheld and fought for.
14. A. A democratic government is called legitimate government because it is people’s own government.
B. There is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. C. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them.
D. Democratic government is attentive to the needs and demands of the people

15. A depositor may have many reasons to deposit his money with a bank. This can be:

i. It is safe and benificiary to keep money in banks .

ii. Depositor gets interest on it so their principal amount can increase with the interest added on it
iii. People also have provision to withdraw the money from the banks according to their need.
16. A consumer has the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation. If any damage is done to a consumer, she has the right to get compensation depending on the degree of damage. For instance, Ram purchases some medicine for which the manufacturer claims that there is no side-effect. After taking this medicine he faces serious skin problem in the form of rashes and itching. Ram files a case in the district level consumer court at his place and at last he gets Rs 30,000 as compensation based on the degree of damage.
17. A. The tertiary activities help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors.

B. These activities do not produce anything but they provide an aid or support for the process of production.
C. Transport and communication are the examples of tertiary sectors.

18. Literacy is an essential element for the economic development since- i. Only education gives us vast knowledge.
ii. A literate person is eligible to get suitable employment.

iii. Education develops the ability to implement modern technology.

iv. With the knowledge of professionals, technology can develop and help in the development of the country.
v. Literate people understand the importance of remaining healthy and stay away from the deadly disease.
19. The United States was adversely affected by the Great Depression of 1929-30.

i. With the fall in prices the US banks had also slashed domestic lending called bank loans.
ii. Many houses and businesses collapsed.

iii. Faced with falling income, many household were unable to repay their loans. iv. They had to give up their houses, cars and other consumer durables.
v. Unemployed soared, people trudged long distances looking for work.

vi. Unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors, thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to close. By 1933, over four thousand banks had
closed and and between 1929 and 1932 about 110, 000 companies had collapsed.

OR

The large-scale industrial production for an international market took place before the new factories came up. These production was not based on factories. This initial phase of industrialisation is referred as ‘proto-industrialisation’ by many historians.
i. Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe there was industrial production for international market which was not based on factories
ii. Merchants from the town in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
iii. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began to increase.
iv. But merchants could not expand production with in towns. This was because the urban crafts and trade guilds there were powerful.
v. In the countryside poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants. This was a time when open field were disappearing and commons were being enclosed.

OR

The population of London rose rapidly in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The population grew four-fold in 70 years between 1810 and 1880 increasing from one million to four million. The reason for this was:
i. London was a powerful magnet for migrant population even though it did not have large factories.
ii. The nineteenth century London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small traders and skilled artisans, semi-skilled and sweated out workers, of soldiers and servants, of casual workers, street sellers and beggars.
iii. Apart from London dockyard five major types of industries employed in large numbers – clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals an engineering, printing and stationary and precious product.
iv. During First World War the numbers of large factories increased and a large number of people joined the new created jobs.
20. The ideas of scientists and philosophers became easily accessible to common people after the print revolution in Europe as:
i. Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published. Maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed.
ii. When scientists like Isaac Newton began to publish their discoveries, they could influence a much wider circle of scientific-minded readers by his scientific logic.
iii. The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read.
iv. Those who read these books saw the world through new eyes.

v. There was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticized their morality.

OR

Social issues were the underlying theme of many novelists in India. They tried to create social awareness on the prevalence of backward social customs which were exploitative in nature. As early as 1857, Baba Padmanji’s Yamuna Paryatan, used a simple style of storytelling to speak about the plight of widows. Similarly, in Indirabai, a Kannada novel written by Gulavadi Venkata Rao in 1899, the heroine is given away in marriage at a very young age to an elderly man. Her husband dies soon after, and she is forced to lead the life of a widow. In spite of opposition from her family and society, Indirabai succeeds in

continuing her education. Eventually she marries again, this time a progressive, English educated man. In Sewasadan, Premchand deals mainly with the poor condition of women in society. Issues like child marriage and dowry are woven into the story of the novel. Social evils like caste oppression was highlighted by Potheri Kunjambu, a ‘lower- caste’ writer from north Kerala who wrote a novel called Saraswativijayam in 1892, mounting a strong attack on caste oppression. This novel shows a young man from an
‘untouchable’ caste, leaving his village to escape the cruelty of his Brahmin landlord. He converts to Christianity, obtains modern education and leads a respectable life with his family. Hence issues like women’s education, the plight of widows, problems created by the early marriage of girls and caste oppression were important social issues which were highlighted through novels.
21. The following features prove that the cotton and textile industry of India occupies a unique position:
i. India shares one fourth in the world trade of cotton yarn. ii. India shares four percent in garments.
iii. Spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fibers produced in India.
iv. It contributes 14 percent to total industrial production. v. It generates employment for 35 million person.
vi. It earns foreign exchange which is 24.6 percent of total earning. vii. It contributes four percent in the GDP of the country.
22. Conservation of minerals is necessary because:

i. The total volume of workable mineral deposits in an insignificant fraction i.e. one per cent of the earth’s crust.
ii. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that required millions of years to be created and concentrated.
iii. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption.
iv. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable.

v. Mining of minerals causes great threat to the environment and health of the human beings.
Hence, it is needed to conserve the minerals and use them in a judicious way.

OR

Ganga and Brahmaputra are two navigational Rivers of India.

Inland waterways are widely used in north-eastern states of India. Its merits are:

i. It is the cheapest means sof transport.

ii. It is very beneficial for our internal trade and for carrying passengers. Its demerits are:
i. Such a means of transport is very limited in scope.

ii. There are very few rivers which are used for this purpose as the navigable distance is too short.
23. The need of decentralization is very much recognized in the Indian constitution and various attempts have been made to decentralize power to village and towns. The basic idea behind decentralisation is that there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level. Panchayats in villages and municipalities in towns have been set up in all the states of the country.
i. But in practical, the concept of decentralization is not very much applied in all the state.
ii. The local bodies are directly under the control of state government. iii. The elections to these local bodies are not held regularly.
iv. Local governments do not have any powers or resources of their own, like agriculture and commerce.
24. No democracy can function in absence of socially responsible and informed citizens.

Ordinary citizens can play the following role in deepening democracy

A. Citizens must learn to tolerate differences and views of all others who disagree with them. Citizens must accept the principle of mutual tolerance and dissent.
B. Citizens must act with the sense of discipline and responsibility. They have a right to express their dissent. They must express their grievance through channels provided by the democratic system.
C. Citizens must participate and seek to influence the public opinion. This can happen only when they are well informed on civic matters.
D. Citizens must exercise their right to vote. This provides a direction to the whole democratic process.
E. Socially responsible citizens also help in the regulation of social reforms and put a check on the rash and unsocial conduct of political parties and the public also.
F. The strength of democracy lies in respecting its citizens and in creating atmosphere of

fair and frank interaction of thoughts, approaches and perspectives for solving collective problems and building a policy of free and equal beings

OR

A. As per the old caste hierarchy Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras formed the ladder from top to bottom. Various socio-economic and political changes have almost broken down this hierarchy.
B. The main occupations of the Brahmins were to perform various religious rites. Now, one can see Brahmins in various other occupations. They are running shops and hotels.
C. Kshatriyas and Vaishyas are also working in many fields.

D. Shudras, who were once untouchables, are now politicians, Doctors, professors and they now hold various respectable posts in government and private sectors.
E. Urbanization and Education have brought a change in the mindset of modern youths from all castes and they are living and working together.
25. a. World Trade Organisation is one such organization whose aim is to liberalize international trade.
b. WTO is supposed to allow free trade for all, in practice, it is seen that the developed countries have unfairly retained trade barriers.
c. On the other hand WTO rules have forced the developing countries to remove trade barriers and subside.
d. For Example: The farmers of US receive massive sums of money from the US government for production and for exports to other countries. Due to this massive money that they receive, US farmers can sell the farm products at abnormally lower prices. Developed countries have reduced trade barriers as per WTO but the governments of developed countries have ignored the rules of WTO. These examples clarifies “WTO is not making rules fairly”.

OR

The factors which facilitate Globalisation are:

a. Rapid improvement in Technology which has stimulated the process of Globalization.. b. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
c. Pressure from international organizations like WTO and World Bank.

26.

d. Improvement in transportation and communication facilities.

e. Dependence of Developing countries upon Developed Countries

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-04

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question number 26 are map question with 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. Who said, “True German culture is to be discovered among common people.”?

OR

Name the areas which came under French control after Franco-Chinese war.

2. Against whom the industrial workers, artisans and peasants revolted in 1848 Europe?

OR

Who was the head of The Revolutionary Society formed by Phan Boi Chau in 1903?

3. What is Pama Dabi?

4. State two main basis of the social divisions in Sri Lanka.

5. Name the sector where more of the people of India employed?

6. Why India has been observing 24th December as the National Consumer’s Day?

7. Name the system by which exchange of goods is done without using the money.

8. What were the impacts of Treaty of Vienna on European people?

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OR

What were the causes of the defeat of the French forces in the battle of Dien Bien Phu?

9. Why was the Non-Cooperation movement withdrawn by Gandhiji?

10. Explain the two types of water erosion.

11. Highlight the facts given by The Citizens’ Fifth Report, CSE, 1999.

12. How political parties raise the chances of social division in the democratic countries?

Explain.

13. What is a political party? What are the components of a political party?

14. How does democracy lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens in the economic sphere?
15. What is meant by Informal Sources of Credit? Mention the drawbacks of this system.

16. Suppose you are the owner of a multinational chocolate manufacturing company. Write down the principle you would abide by before marketing your chocolates. x
17. How would income and employment increase if farmers were provided with irrigation and marketing facilities?
18. Explain how the goals of different persons may sometimes be conflicting.

19. How far is it correct to say that the First World War was the first modern industrial war?

Explain.

OR

Describe any five major problems faced by new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the industrial revolution.

OR

How did the condition of women workers change from nineteenth to twentieth centuries in London?
20. “Print led to intense controversies between social and religious reformers and Hindu orthodoxy.” Support the statement with example.

OR

How did the characters like Indulekha and Madhavan inspires the contemporary generations to strike a balance between the western ideas and Indian traditional culture.
21. Why there is a need of conservation of minerals?

22. Write a short note on Bauxite, its formation, features and distribution in India.

OR

How do physiographic and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian railway network? Explain with example.
23. What are the causes responsible for very slow progress of Panchayat Raj System in India?

24. Can you explain any five challenges and problems faced by Indian Democracy?

OR

What is communalism? What are the major beliefs of communal people?

25. Can you illustrate the features of the New Economic policy introduced in 1991?

OR

In what ways the globalisation affected the life of Sushila?

26. Two features A and B are marked in the given political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
A. A Coal Mine

B. Nuclear Power Plant

Locate and label the place in the given outline map of India

C. Mangalore iron ore exporting port.

D. Place where Jallianwala Bhag Incident took place. E. Place where Gandhiji violated the Salt Law.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-04

Solution

1. Johann Gottfried Herder said the above line.

OR

Tonkin and Anaam came under French control after Franco-Chinese war.

2. The industrial workers, artisans and peasants revolted against monarchy in 1848 in

Europe.

OR

Prince Cuong De was the head of The Revolutionary Society formed by Phan Boi Chau in

1903.

3. Pama Dabi is another name of slash and burn agriculture in Odisha.

4. Religion and Language

5. Primary Sector.

6. 24th December is observed as the National Consumer’s Day because it was on this day that the Indian Parliament enacted the Consumer Protection Act in 1986.
7. Barter System

8. Representatives of the European power, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed treaty of Vienna in 1815. Following were its impact on the European people:
i. Deposed Bourbon dynasty was restored to power. Future expansion of French was prevented.
ii. Prussia was given new important territories on its Western frontier, while Austria was given control of the Northern Italy.
iii. In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of

Saxony.

iv. The treaty slowed down the growth of nationalism. There was an effort to restore Monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and to create a new conservative order in Europe.

OR

Following are the causes of the defeat of the French forces in the battle of Dien Bien Phu:

i. The valley where the French garrisons were located was flooded in the monsoons which made it impossible for the French forces and tanks to move.
ii. The whole area was covered with bushes and jungles making it difficult for the

French air forces to trace the anti-aircraft guns hidden in the bushes and the jungles. iii. In 1954 the Viet Minh surrounded 12,000 French troops and inflicted upon them a
crushing defeat at the fortress of Dien Bien Phu.

9. A. The movement was turning violent.

B. At Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh, a peaceful demonstration in bazaar turned into a violent clash in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
C. Gandhiji also felt that Satyagraha is needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass movement.
10. The two types of water erosion are:

i. Sheet Erosion: When the top layer of the soil is removed over a large area by the running water, it is called as sheet erosion. In such cases the top soil is washed away.
ii. Gully Erosion: The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies. The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land. In Chambal basin such lands are called ravines.
11. The Citizens’ Fifth Report, CSE, 1999 stated the following facts:

i. India’s rivers, especially the smaller ones, have all turned into toxic streams. ii. Even the big ones like the Ganga and Yamuna are far from being pure.
iii. The assault on India’s rivers – from population growth, agricultural modernization to urbanization and industrialization – is enormous and growing day by day.
iv. This entire life stands threatened.

12. A. Political parties often refer to these social divisions and make political promises based on the size of the division.
B. Political parties represent various social groups.

C. Political parties address the grievances of the socially disadvantaged groups.

D. People’s preference for political parties and voting pattern are influenced by the issue of social divisions.
13. Political Party:

A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. Always political parties take some policies and programmes

for the society with a view to promote the collective good.

There are different views on what is good for the society and people. Every political party wants to persuade people why their policies are better than other parties, and tries to win the suppott of people.
Three Components of a Political Party are:

i. The Leaders: Every political party has some prominent leaders who formulate policies and programmes of the party and choose candidates for contesting elections.
ii. The Active Members: They are involved in different committees of the party and participate directly in their activity.
iii. The Followers: They believe in the party’s ideology and support the party by casting their votes in favour of the party at the time of election.
14. A. Democracy stands for equal economic status to all citizens.

B. In a democracy, every citizen has right to do any profession.

C. In a democracy, government undertakes extensive social welfare schemes and achieve universal economic growth rate.
D. Democracy government took so many welfare schemes to remove poverty.

15. A. Informal source of credit includes the credit from money lenders, friends, traders, employers and relatives. There are no rules and regulations of government are applied on these institutions.
B. These institutions charge very high interest rates or debtor has to surrender their asset to pay the debt back.
C. There is no govt organization to supervise the functioning of these sources of credit. D. The sources of credit some time use unfair means to get their money back.
16. As an owner of a multinational chocolate manufacturing company. I should endeavour to abide by certain principle before marketing my product (chocolates). Like:
i. As a company we would follow the safety rules and regulations prescribed by the government.
ii. We would provide the detail information on the packing of our product like- Ingredients, Maximum Retail Price; batch number, date of manufacturing, date of expiry.
iii. We would also provide our address.

iv. We should also write our consumer help line number on the packing. v. We should use an environment friendly packaging material.

17. i. The government can spend some money or banks can provide loans to construct wells to irrigate the land of poor farmers.
ii. Government can develop tourism or regional craft industries. It would encourage the small farmers to get additional income.
iii. Suppose a new dam is constructed and canals are dug to irrigate many farms, this could lead to lot of employment generation within the agricultural sector itself reducing the problem of underemployment.
iv. Poor farmers need seeds, fertilizers, and agricultural equipments. If the local banks give them credit at reasonable rate of interest, they will be able to buy them in time and cultivate their land.
v. Another way, by which we can tackle this problem, is to identify, promote and locate industries and services in semi-rural areas where a large number of people may be employed.
18. It is possible that different people may seek things which are conflicting to each other.

For instance, in a factory, workers seek higher wages. However, factory owners seek more profit and want to extract more work from workers at lower wages. Hence, both parties seek conflicting goals.
19. The First World War can be said to be the first modern industrial war because of the following reasons:
i. The fighting involved the world’s leading industrial nations which then harnessed the vast powers of modern industry to inflict the greatest possible destruction on their enemies.
ii. It saw the use of machineguns, tanks, aircrafts, and chemical weapons on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern large-scale industry.
iii. The scale of death and destruction was vast, that is nine million dead and twenty million injured.
iv. Such a massive destruction was unthinkable before the industrial age, without the use of industrial arms.
v. During the war, industries were restricted to produce war-related goods.

OR

Due to expansion of world trade, the merchants wanted to expand their production. But the major problems faced by new European merchants in setting up their industries in

towns before the industrial revolution were:

i. Urban crafts and trade guilds were very powerful. They could create many problems for the merchants in their towns.
ii. These associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.
iii. Rulers had granted the monopoly rights to different guild to produce and trade in specific products.
iv. In the countryside, peasants and artisans were available for work.

OR

Earlier in late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries factories employed large numbers of women. But with technological development, women lost their industrial jobs and had to take up work within household jobs. The 1861 census recorded a quarter of a million domestic servants in London, of whom the vast majority was women; many of them were recent migrants. A large number of women use their homes to increase family income by taking in lodgers or through such activities. Later, women of London during twentiethcentury took up tailoring, washing, matchbox making, etc. However, there was
a change once again in the twentieth century as women got employment in war time industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.
20. Print led to intense controversies between social and religious reformers and Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, brahmanical priesthood and idolatry.
i. In Bengal as the debate developed tracts and newspapers proliferated circulating a variety of arguments.
ii. To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday spoken language of local people.
iii. Raja Rammohan Roy published the ‘Sambad Kaumud’ from 1821 and the Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the ‘Samachar Chandrika’ to oppose the opinions of Rammohan Roy.
iv. From 1822 two Persian newspapers were published, ‘Jam-i-Jahan Nama’ and ‘Shamsul

Akhba’.

OR

In Indulekha, the protagonist she is portrayed as a woman of breath-taking beauty, high intellectual abilities, and artistic talent and with an educatio n in Sanskrit and English. The heroine rejects the foolish landlord and chooses the handsome and educated lower- caste Madhavan. Madhavan, the hero, is a member of the English educated class of Nayars from the University of Madras. He was also a first rate Sanskrit Scholar. He dressed in western clothes but he kept the long tuft of hair according to the Nayar customs. They both get married and he joins the civil services. Western way of living was attractive but the wholesome adopting of western values would destroy traditional ways of living. This way Indulekha and Madhavan inspires the contemporary generations to strike a balance between the western ideas and Indian traditional culture.
21. 1. The total Volume of workable mineral deposits in an insignificant fraction i.e. one percent of the earth’s crust.
2. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that required millions of years to be created and concentrated.
3. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption.
4. Mineral resources are finite and non renewable.

5. Mining of minerals causes great threat to the environment and health of the human beings.
6. Due to the above discussed reasons it is necessary to conserve the minerals and use them in a judicious way.
22. Bauxite is a clay-like substance from which alumina and later aluminium is obtained.

Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleable ability. Formation: Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
Distribution:

i. Bauxite is found in the Amarkantak Plateau, Maikal Hills and the plateau region of

Bilaspur-Katni.

ii. Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state in India.

iii. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.
iv. 45 per cent of the country’s total production in 2000-01 was in Odisha.
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OR

The physiographic and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian railway network to great extent. For example:
i. The level and extensive northern plains with high density of population, high industrial activity and rich agriculture, favour development of railways. However, the wide rivers that flow here cannot be crossed without bridges which become an additional cost for railways.
ii. The high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities in the Himalayan region create unfavorable conditions for laying the railway lines. Frequent landslides and rock fall are additional problem.
iii. The peninsular regions with their hilly terrains also make it different to lay railway tracks. In such areas, railway tracks have to be laid through low hills or gaps or tunnels.
iv. The low flood plains of Assam and Bihar, where floods are common, have difficulty in maintaining railway lines.
v. The sandy plain of western Rajasthan and the hilly tracks of the Sahayadris were unfavorable for development of railways.
vi. Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of

Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.

23. Lack of awareness: The lack of awareness and conceptual clarity is one of the reason of slow success of Panchayat Raj. Some people treat it just as an administrative agency, some as an intention of democracy at grass root level and some treat it as a charter of rural, local government.
Irregular election: Election should hold in a gap of five years, but still irregularity is there to helding the elections.
Relationship of government officials and elected representatives: All work of the Panchayat Raj System is being done by the government officials, but contradiction always comes in between government officials and elected representatives and then it progresses very slowly.
Lack of money and other support: The Panchayat Raj institutions lack enough money, administrative support and help from the government officials. That’s why its progress rate is very slow.
Most state governments haven’t transferred sinificant powers to the local

governments.

24. A. Challenge of expansion: Indian democracy is facing the challenge of expansion. This challenge of Indian democracy involves the practical aspects like-ensuring grater power to local governments, an extension of federal principals to all the units of the federation, the inclusion of women and minority groups.
B. The problem of Casteism: Casteism playing a major role in the Indian politics. There are many castes based pressure groups and interest groups. All these influences those who are in power. Casteism is also harmful to the unity of the country.
C. The problem of Communalism: Communalism has also is the negative implication in Indian Politics. It leads to intolerance, suspicion, and fear towards members of the other communities. Besides this, there are various types of communal violence in the society.
D. The problem of Corruption: This problem of Indian democracy is related to the criminal record and personal possession of politicians. Corruption is an obstacle to the development of Indian economy.
E. The problem of Criminalization: Money and muscle power is used during elections.

Here is a lack of electoral ethics and insufficient representation of various sections of society like minorities and women.

OR

A. Communalism is a situation when a particular community tries to promote its own interests at the cost of other communities.
B. Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.
C. The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests should be the same. Any difference that they have, is irrelevant.
D. Communalism also includes that people who follow different religions have some commonalities. These are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.
E. Sometimes communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation.
25. Following are the features of New Economic Policy introduced in 1991:

26.

a. Liberalized policy towards foreign trade and foreign investment. b. Introduction of foreign capital investment.
c. Removal of trade barriers.

d. Reduction in the role of Public sector. e. Promotion to private sector.
f. Reforms in the financial sector.

g. Liberalization of import licensing.

h. Freedom is given to the MNCs to set up their industrial units.

OR

Sushila has spent many years as a worker in garment export industry in Delhi. She was employed as a ‘permanent worker’ entitled to health insurance, provident fund, over time at durable rate.
a. In 1990 her factory was closed due to the introduction of new economy policy which was introduced by the Indian Government. She becomes unemployed.
b. After searching a job for six months, she finally got a job 30 km away from her home. c. Even working in this factory for several years, she was a temporary worker and
earned less than half of what she was earning earlier.

d. She left her house every morning, seven days a week at 7:30 a.m. and returns at 10 p.m. A day off from work means no wage.
e. Sushila no longer got the protection and benefits she used to get earlier.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-05

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question number 26 are map question with 5 mark.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. What was the major objective of the Vienna Congress of 1815?

OR

Which river was explored by French Exploratory Force, in which Garnier participated?

2. When was the Frankfurt parliament held?

OR

Name the blind poet of Vietnam who bemoaned what was happening in his country.

3. How many crops of paddy are grown in a year in the states like Assam, West Bengal and

Orissa and they are termed as by which names?

4. In which year, Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country?

5. What are the goods known as which are used as raw materials for the further production of goods?
6. Which right of the consumer is violated if a seller is not allowing the consumer to assess the variety of goods and services?
7. Which is the main source of credit for rich urban households in India?

8. What were the main symbols of independent nations?

OR

Highlight any 3 limitations of New Educational Policy introduced by French in Vietnam.

9. Highlight the effects of Non-Cooperation movement on the economy of India.

10. How far it is correct to say that it is possible to reverse land degradation? Explain the statement while giving the example of village Sukhomajri?
11. What can be the adverse effects of over-exploitation and excessive use of water resources?
12. Explain with examples different forms of social diversity.

13. What do you understand by the Bi-party system? Write its one merit and one demerit?

14. How far is it correct to say that democracies have not been able to reduce poverty?

15. Mention the shortcomings of the barter system that led to the evolution of money?

16. Which tool is used by United Nations to protect the consumers of all over the world?

Explain.

17. Why a large number of workers are forced to enter unorganised sector?

18. Explain any three limitations of per capita income.

19. What was Rinderpest? State any four effects of the coming of Rinderpest in Africa.

OR

What problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the nineteenth century? Explain.

OR

What form of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people?
20. Describe the development of Gutenberg’s printing press.

OR

Highlight the miseries of industrial age of nineteenth century Europe.

21. How is integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does this industry face?
22. Explain any five types of non-conventional sources of energy developed in India.

OR

Highlight the importance of Pipeline transportation and Network.

23. Why does the exact balance of power between the Central and State Governments vary from one federation to other federations? Explain with example.
24. Describe the expanded form of democracyin the modern world?

OR

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Explain the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies.

25. Explain the factors which facilitate Globalisation.

OR

Why did the Government of India remove trade barriers? Explain the reasons.

26. Features ‘A’ is marked in the given map of India. Identify this feature with the help of the following information and write their correct name on the line marked on the map.
A. A leading Coffee producing state

On the same map of India locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols: B. A leading Bajra producing state
C. A leading Jowar producing state

D. The place of Peasants Satyagraha.

E. A place associated with the movement of Indigo Planters.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-05

Solution

1. The objective of Vienna Congress was to undo most of the changes that had come about in the Europe during the Napoleonic War.

OR

Mekong River was explored by French Exploratory Force in which Francis Garnier participated.
2. Frankfurt parliament was held in 1848.

OR

Ngyuyen Dinh Chieu was blind poet of Vietnam who bemoaned what was happening in his country.
3. Three- Aus, Aman and Boro

4. In 1949

5. Intermediate Goods.

6. Consumer’s right to choose is violated if a seller is not allowing the consumer to assess the variety of goods and services.
7. Formal Sources of credit are the main source of credit in India.

8. The main symbols of an independent nation were: Every country is identified through these symbols which are distinct from others.
i. The national flag,

ii. The national anthem, iii. The national language, iv. The national seal

OR

Following are the limitations of New Educational Policy:

i. New textbooks were introduced by French that glorified the French rule and justified colonial rule.
ii. In the textbooks, the Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward,

capable of manual labour.

iii. School children were taught that only French rule could provide a suitable atmosphere for the overall development of Vietnamese. Whereas the reality was just the opposite.
9. The effect of non-cooperation on the economic front was more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire. The import of foreign cloths halved between 1921 and 1922 its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textiles mills and handlooms went up.
10. i. The village of Sukhomajti and the district of Jhabua have shown that it is possible to reverse land degradation. Tree density in Sukhomajari increased from 13 per cent hectare in 17976 to 1,272 per hectare in 1992.
ii. Regeneration of the environment leads to economic well-being as a result of greater resource availability, improved agriculture and animal care, and consequently, increased incomes. Average annual household income in Sukhomajri ranged from Rs.
10,000-15,000 between 1979 and 1984.

iii. People’s management is essential for ecological restoration. With people being made the decision-makers by Madhya Pradesh government, 2.9 million hectares or about 1 per cent of India’s land area, are being greened across the state through watershed management.
11. The adverse effects of over-exploitation and excessive use of water resources can result in:
i. Depletion of water resources.

ii. Degradation of our natural ecosystem.

iii. Shortage of availability of food which may adversely affect food security in the country.
iv. Serious health hazards.

12. A. The social differences can be overlapping and cross-cutting in nature.

B. The differences between Blacks and whites become a social division when blacks are found to be poor, racially discriminated and homeless.
C. If social difference cross cut one another it is difficult for groups to get pitted against

one another. Example, In Netherlands, class and region cross-cut each other. Catholics and Protestants are equally rich or poor in that country.
D. As we know, Belgium is a small country with many communities. As a comparison to Sri Lanka, People speak different languages in different regions. while in Sri Lanka both language and regional differences are found. Thus social diversity can take different forms in different societies
13. Two-party system or Bi-party system:-

A. Merit: This system allows stability of government as no coalition is there. (as the chance of winning is more since there are only 2 parties).
Strong opposition (as only one party forms opposition, it gets a lot of attention from media and people).
Responsible government (because if they commit mistake, opposition will gain advantage).
B. Demerit: In this system, only two main parties have a serious chance of winning maority seats to form the government. Undemocratic (as there is not much choice provided for people).
Cabinet dictatorship (since winning chance of same party is more it can lead dictatorship of the winning candidate).
14. The ability of democracy to achieve higher developments worries us. Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. Although the majority of voters constitute the poverty-ridden group, yet democratically elected government do not appear to be as keen to address the question of poverty as we would expect them to. The situation is much worse in some other countries. People in several poor countries are
now dependent on rich countries even for food.

15. Exchanging of goods was difficult. Demand of two persons for each other’s commodity should have risen at the same time, otherwise exchange was not possible. This is known as double coincidence of want. It is a time consuming process. Exact valuation of goods may not be take place at the time of exchange of goods. It is difficult to get the product on the spot and at the right time.
16. The United Nations uses some guidelines to protect the consumers of all over the world.

In 1985 it adopted the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection. This was a tool for nations to adopt measures to protect the consumers and for consumer advocacy groups to press their governments to do so. At the international level, this has become the foundation for

consumer movements. Today Cnsumers International has become umbrella body of 240 organizations from over 100 countries.
17. i. The organised sector offers jobs that are the most sought after. But the employment opportunities in the organised sector have been expanding very slowly.
ii. It is also common to find many organised sector enterprises in the unorganised sector jobs, which pay a very low salary.
iii. As a result, a large number of workers are forced to enter the unorganised sector jobs, which pay a very low salary.
iv. They are often exploited and not paid a fair wage.

v. Their earnings are low and not regular. These jobs are not secure and have no other benefits.
18. Three limitations of per capita income are:

i. Since per capita income is an average measure, it is possible that with the increase in income, the rich may become richer and the poor poorer.
ii. It is, thus, possible that with the increase in per capita income, greater inequality in the distribution of income may crop up.
iii. Average income is undoubtedly a more useful comparison but it does not tell us how income is distributed among people in a country; it may hide disparities.
19. Rinderpest is a devastating cattle plague that affected the cattle of Africa. It arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian solders invading Eritrea in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892.It reached the Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five years later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle.
Reason: In the late nineteenth century Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals and hoping to establish plantations and mines. But they faced a problem of shortage of labour willing to work for wages. Africans had livestock and were not ready and willing to work for wages.
Impact: Rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy, like:
i. The loss of cattle forced the Africans to come into the labour market and work in plantation and mines as it destroyed African livelihoods.
ii. Planters, mine owners and colonial governments now successfully monopolised what
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scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force Africans into the labour market.
iii. Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

OR

The problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the nineteenth century are as follows:
a. Import duties: The export market of Indian cotton weaver collapsed due to increase in import duties on them in England.
b. Cheap competitive products: Their local market shrank as they were flooded with cheap Manchester imports.
c. Insufficent raw cotton: The local weavers could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.
d. High prices: When the Americans civil war broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India. Indian weavers were forced to buy cotton at very high prices.
e. Machine-made goods: By the end of nineteenth century, factories in India began production and flooded the market with machine goods. This created the problem of survival for weaving industries.

OR

Various forms of entertainment came up in the nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people, like:
i. The wealthy Londoners went to the annual London Season where the elite groups enjoyed several cultural events such as the opera, classical musical performances and theatre etc.
ii. Working classes too had their own means of entertainment. They used to meet in pubs and enjoy a drink, exchange news and discuss political events.
iii. In the nineteenth century, the establishment of libraries, museums and art galleries provided entertainment to the common people.
iv. Later on, music halls and cinema houses became a source of mass entrainment.

v. For the industrial workers, spending holidays by the sea-shore and enjoying both the

sun and the bracing winds also proved a great source of entrainment and leisure.

20. Development of Gutenberg’s printing press took place in the following order:

i. Gutenberg drew the knowledge from wine and olive presses. He developed the model of printing press and used moulds for casting metal types for the letter of the alphabet.
ii. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system of printing press. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to print.
iii. In the hundred years between 1450 and 1559, printing presses were set up in most of the countries of Europe.
iv. Printers from Germany travelled to other countries seeking work and helping to start new printing presses.
v. This shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution.

OR

A. More workers than the demand : There was an abundance of workers in the market than the demand This had an adverse impact on the lives of the workers. Due to the shortage of work, most of the workers failed to get jobs So they offered their services at lower wages.
B. Seasonality of work : Seasonality of work any industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places. But most looked for odd jobs, which till the mid- nineteenth century were difficult to find.
C. Low real wages : Though the wages increased somewhat in the early 19th century, but the increase was nullified by increase in prices. During the Napoleonic ware, the red wages fell significantly.
D. Poverty and unemployment : At the best of times, till the mid-nineteenth century, about 10 per cent of the urban population was extremely poor The unemployment rate was also very high.
E. Housing problem : Factory or workshop owners did not house live migrant workers.

Many job seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or night in shelters.
21. Difference between Integrated Steel plants and Mini Steel Plants are:

i. The integrated steel plants are larger in size as compared to the mini steel plants.

ii. The integrated steel plants handles everything in one single complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping while the mini steel plants use steel scrap, sponge iron and sometimes steel ingots supplied by integrated steel plants.
iii. Integrated steel plants manufacture all types of steel but mini steel plants only produce mild and alloy steel of given specification.
iv. There are 10 primary integrated and many mini steel plants in India. Problems faced by the steel Industry:
i. It has to face the tough competition of different steel producing countries especially

China.

ii. It faces high costs and limited supply of coking coal and irregular supply of electricity. iii. Poor infrastructure.
iv. Lower productivity of labour.

22. The growing consumption of energy has resulted in a pressing need to use renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material. These are called non-conventional energy sources. India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water, wind and biomass. It has the largest programmes for the development of these renewable energy resources.
i. Solar energy: India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj, where solar energy is used to sterilize milk cans.
ii. Wind power: India now ranks as a wind super power in the world. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.
iii. Biogas: Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic purpose in rural area. Decomposition of organic matter yields gas, which has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal.
iv. Tidal energy: Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high tide water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. From that stored water electricity is generated.
v. Geo thermal Energy: Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced

by using the heat from the interior of the earth.

OR

The importance of Pipeline transportation and Network are as folllows:

i. Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal plants.
ii. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.

iii. The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be thought of only because of pipelines.
iv. Initial cost of lying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.

v. Pipelines can be laid anywhere in mountainous region, deserts, under sea and hilly area also.
vi. It rules out trans-shipment losses and delay.

vii. It is environment-friendly mode of transportation.

23. The balance of power between the Central and the State government varies from one federation to another due to the nature of route adopted by the country like: ‘Coming Together’ Federations and ‘Holding Together’ Federation.
i. Coming together Federation: In this type of federation independent units come together on their own to form a union or federation. Their main aim is to form a bigger unit, so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining their identity they can increase their security. Federations of USA, Switzerland and Australia are its examples.
ii. Holding Together Federations: Under this type of federation, the federal government decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the national government. In this, type of government the Central government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis states. Holding together sometimes gives unequal power to constitute states. Some states are granted special powers. India, Spain and Belgium federations are the examples of Holding Together Federations.
24. Expanded form of democracy in the modern day world:

i. A democratic Government is people’s own Government. In Democracy rights are not limited to the right to vote, it also provides some social rights and economic rights to the citizens.
ii. It is accountable, responsive and legitimate government.

iii. It give respect to the voice of minority groups.

iv. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country.
v. Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored.

OR

A. In the central legislature there are less than 10 per cent of its total strength are women.
B. In the state legislature, there are less than 5 per cent of its total strength are women. C. In panchayat 1/3 seats are reserved for women.
D. India is among the bottom group of nations in the world, in this respect.

E. Women activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least 1/3 of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. But the bill to this effect has not been passed.
25. The factors which facilitate Globalisation are:

a. Rapid improvement in Technology which has stimulated the process of Globalization.. b. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
c. Pressure from international organizations like WTO and World Bank. d. Improvement in transportation and communication facilities.
e. Dependence of Developing countries upon Developed Countries

OR

i. The government of India decided that the time had come for Indian traders to compete with the producers and manufacturers of the world.
ii. Government felt that competition would improve the performance of producers. iii. The decision to remove trade barriers was supported by powerful international
organizations like World Bank, World Trade Organization and International

Monetary fund.

iv. Businessmen are allowed to take decisions freely about their imports and exports. In this way Government decentralized the power to the businessmen.
v. Advance technology and Foreign Investment is required for the development of country.

26.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-06

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question number 26 is map question of 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. Who was proclaimed the first king of Italy?

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OR

Which is the most visible form of French control over Vietnam?

2. Who had hosted the meeting of representatives of European powers at Vienna in 1815?

OR

Who were the non-Vietnamese who lived in hinterlands?

3. What are Aus, Aman and Boro?

4. What does the word ethnic refer to?

5. Why do the agriculture and allied activities still happen to be the major source of employment?
6. What is District Level Consumer Courts?

7. Name the system in which double coincidence of wants is essential feature.

8. What were the consequences of the Liberal Revolution of 1848?

OR

How would you describe the diversity of religion in Vietnam?

9. Why did Indians react against Rowlatt Act?

10. What is soil erosion? Explain the major types of soil erosion?

11. Why do we need to conserve and manage our water resources?

12. Explain the outcome of politics of social division under the heading of ‘people’s perception’.
13. Explain the reasons for the lack of internal democracy in the political parties of India.

14. ‘Democracy always respond to the needs of people’. Analyze the statement.

15. Mention the requirements a borrower has to fulfill before taking a house loan?

16. Why are rules and regulations required in the market place?

17. Why is underemployment seen as a major problem in India? Explain.

18. What do you understand by sustainability of development? What can be done to make development sustainable?
19. From where did Henry Ford draw inspiration, regarding the assembly line method?

Describe the assembly line method in the industrial production sector.

OR

How did East Indian Company procure the regular supply of cotton and silk goods?

OR

Give some chief characteristics of the city and their distinction from towns and villages.

20. How did China remain a major producer of printed material for a long time?

OR

Discuss some social changes in 19th century Britain which Thomas Hardy and Charles

Dickens wrote about.

21. Why are industries located in or near the cities? What were its results in pre- independence period?
22. Describe the importance of minerals in human life.

OR

Explain the different reasons for the growing importance of road transport vis-a-vis rail transport.

23. Explain how power is shared among different organs of the government.

24. Explain the challenge faced by countries which do not have a democratic form of government.

OR

How is Casteism dangerous for a democratic country?

25. How has Information and Communication Technology played a big role in bringing the whole world close to each other?

OR

Explain the factors which facilitate Globalisation.

26. Features ‘A’ is marked in the given map of India. Identify this feature with the help of the following information and write their correct name on the line marked on the map.
A. A leading Coffee producing state

On the same map of India locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols: B. A leading Bajra producing state
C. A leading Jowar producing state

D. The place where Mahatma Gandhi organized satyagraha for cotton mill workers. E. The place where the Indian National Congress held its session in December 1920.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-06

Solution

1. Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the first king of Italy.

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OR

Military and Economic domination is the most visible form of French control over

Vietnam.

2. The Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich had hosted the meeting of representatives of

European powers at Vienna in 1815.

OR

Khmer Cambodians were the non-Vietnamese who lived in hinterlands.

3. In states like Assam, West Bengal and Orissa three crops of paddy are grown in a year.

These are locally known as Aus, Aman and Boro.

4. It refers to a social division based on shared culture.

5. This is because the Governments could not create enough jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors of our economy.
6. These are courts which settle consumer disputes at district level. These consumer courts deals with the cases involving claims up to Rs 20 lakhs.
7. In Barter system double coincidence of want is an essential feature.

8. The following were consequences of the Liberal Revolution of 1848:

i. It became a basis for the unification of Germany and Italy. ii. Conservatives could not restore the old order.
iii. The realised that they would have to give concessions to the liberal nationalist revolutionaries.
iv. Abolition of serfdom and bonded labour took place both in Habsburg dominions and in Russia.
v. The Hungarians were granted more autonomy by the Habsburg rulers in 1867.

OR

Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local

practices. Religious beliefs among the peasantry were shaped by a variety of Syncretic traditions that combined Buddhism and local beliefs. The elites in Vietnam were educated in Chinese and Confucianism. There were many popular religions in Vietnam that were spread by people who claimed to have seen vision of God.
9. A. This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of Indian Members.
B. It gave the government enormous power to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
C. The Rowlatt Act acted as an instrument of suppression of civil rights of the Indians hence produced widespread discontent among masses.
The reactions of people against the Rowlatt Act passed through the Imperial Legislative

Council 1919 were as follows:

1. Rallies were organised in various cities.

2. Workers went on strike in railway workshops.

3. Shops closed down.

Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws,for which a day of hartal was fixed on 6 April,1919.
10. The process of removal of soil by the forces of nature like wind and water is called soil erosion. This can also be described as denudation of soil cover and subsequent washing down. Following are its two types:
i. Wind Erosion: Wind blows loose soil off flat or slopping land. This is known as wind erosion.
ii. Water Erosion: When running water is responsible for the removal of the topmost layer of the earth that is known as water erosion.
11. We need to conserve and manage water resources as:

A. Water is essential for life. So, there is a need to conserve water resources. B. We need to ensure food security.
C. We need water for continuation of our livelihood and productive activities. D. We need water to safeguard ourselves from health hazards.
12. A. This is the most important factor which decides the outcome of politics of social divisions. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it will lead to social division and violence.
B. Some factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions. First of

all, the outcome depends on how people perceive their identities.If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate.
C. As long as the people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or

Protestants, their differences prevailed.

D. It is much easier if the people are complementary with national identities.

13. A. There is lack of internal democracy within political parties. Parties do not keep membership registers and do not hold organizational meetings.
B. Ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party.
C. They do not have the means or the connections needed to influence the decisions. D. As a result the leaders assume greater power to make decisions in the name of the
party.

14. i. In a democracy the government is known as a responsive government as it responds to the needs of the people.
ii. A non-democratic government may or may not respond to the needs of the people. It all depends upon the wishes of the people who rule.
iii. A democracy requires the rulers to attend to the needs of people. Therefore, a democratic government is a better form of government because it is a more accountable form of government.
iv. In a democracy there is always a space for public discussions and has a room for correction of mistakes.
15. i. A Person has to submit documents showing his employment record and salary record. ii. Person has to submit his identity proof and residential proof.
iii. Borrower has to produce a guarantor.

iv. Collateral is a very important condition which a barrower has to submit in the bank.

16. Rules and regulations are neccesary to run the market as:

i. The consumers are exploited by the shopkeepers and traders in different ways such as less weight or measurement, more prices, adulteration and defective goods.
ii. In case of a complaint regarding a good or services, the shopkeeper or trader tries to avoid any responsibility. The seller tries to shift all the responsibility onto the buyer as if the seller has no responsibility once he has a sold his product.
iii. In case of large and wealthy companies, mostly producers are few and are powerful while the consumers purchase in small amounts and are scattered. In this case they

manipulate the market in various ways. The exisisting rules can put a check to such practices.
iv. To save the consumers from such type of exploitation rules and regulations are required in the market place.
17. A. The problem of underemployment or disguised employment is very high in the agricultural sector.
B. As per the requirement, more people are engaged in the agricultural sector. This is a major hurdle in the formation of human capital.
C. Due to this, the economic growth rate of the country is very slow.

D. People are not ready to invest in other sectors of the economy like secondary sector and tertiary sectors.
18. Sustainability of development means economic development without any damage to environment.
However, since the second half of the twentieth century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels of development are not sustainable.
To make development sustainable, non-renewable sources of energy are to be saved for the future generation. The development of the country would continue but the technology has to be made eco-friendly so that they may not harm the environment.
19. Henry Ford was car manufacturer. He drew inspiration regarding the assembly line method from a Chicago slaughter house. He adapted this method to his new car plant in Detroit.
i. The assembly line forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously – such as fitting a particular part to the car – at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt
ii. This was way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work as he could not afford to delay the motion or take a break.
iii. Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break or have even a friendly word with the workmate. As a result, Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at a three-minute intervals.

OR

The East India Company had to face obstacle to procure regular supply of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers. The French, Dutch, Portuguese as well as the local traders

competed in the market. However, the East India Company establishes political power and asserted monopoly right to trade.
i. The company tried to eliminate existing traders and have direct control over the weaver and appointed a paid servant called Gomasthas to supervise, collect supplies and examine the quality of products.
ii. It prevented weavers from dealing with other buyers. One way of doing was through the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production.
iii. Those weavers, who took loans, had to hand over the cloth they produced to the

Gomasthas. They could not take it to any other trade.

OR

Cities had some chief characteristics and they were distincti from towns and villages in many ways. For instance:
i. Cities like London and Bombay were larger on scale as compared to towns and villages.
ii. Cities could develop only when there was an increase in food supplies that could support a wide range of non-food producers. Villages and towns required only food supplies in small quantities.
iii. Cities were often the centre of multifarious activities like trade and industry, religious institutions, intellectual pursuits and administrative set-up while villages and towns had restricted activities.
iv. In cities a large number of social groups as merchants, traders, bankers, wholesale traders and brokers, skilled artisans and various professionals lived while in the villages and towns were predominated by farmers and petty artisans and shopkeepers.
20. China remained a major producers of printing material for a long time as

i. Merchants used print in their everyday life as they collected trade information.

ii. Text books for the civil services examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state.
iii. The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, romantic plays.

iv. Rich women began to read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.

v. Wives of scholar and officials published their work and courtesans wrote about their lives.

OR

i. Charles Dickens wrote mainly about the emergence of industrial age and it’s effects on society and the common people.
ii. Growth of factories and expanded cities led to the growth of business and economy and increased the profits of the capitalists.
iii. But at the same time workers faced immense problems. Use of machines resulted in unemployment of ordinary labour, they became home-less creating the problem of housing.
iv. Pursuit of profit became the goal of factory owners while the workers were undervalued and almost lost their identity. Human beings were reduced to mere instruments of production. Charles Dickens tried to focuss on these changes in his novel ‘Hard Times’ as well as in ‘Oliver Twist.
v. Thomas Hardy on the other hand focusses attention on the problems and changes in rural community. Traditional rural communities were vanishing fast in 19th century.
vi. Large farmers bought machines and employed labourers to produce for the market.

The old rural culture with independent farmers was dying out. Hardy depicts these changes in his novel, “The Mayor of Casterbridge”. Hardy mourns the loss of the more personalised world disappearing though he was aware of the advantages of the new order.
21. There are reasons why industries are located in or near the cities:

i. As an industrial activity starts, urbanization follows.

ii. Industries need different types of services such as banking, transport, insurance labour, hotels and educational institute which are easily available in the cities only.
iii. Cites are markets for many finished industrial products.

iv. Many industries lead to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centers known as agglomeration economies.
In the pre-independence period, most manufacturing units were located in places with a viewpoint of overseas trade such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc. Consequently, there emerged certain pockets of industrially developed urban centers surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.

22. Minerals are indispensable part of human life.

i. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals.
ii. The railway lines and the tarmac of the roads, our implements and machinery too are made from minerals.
iii. Cars buses, trains, aeroplans are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth.
iv. In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
v. Availability of the minerals helps in the economic development of the country. vi. Our food too contains minerals.

OR

As transport ushers development, special focus is laid in development of transport infrastructure. Moreover, there has been growing importance of road transport vis-a-vis rail transport these days due to number of reasons, such as:
i. Construction costs of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.

ii. Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.

iii. Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and can traverse mountains, such as the Himalayas.
iv. Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
v. It also provides door to door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
vi. Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes transport such as they provide a link between railway station, air and sea ports.
23. The constituton provided distribution of legislative powers into the following organs: A. Union List: Subjects of national importance like defense, foreign affairs, atomic
energy, banking, post and telegraph are included in the Union List. Only the central government can pass laws on the subjects mentioned in the union list because we need a uniform policy on important or national issues throughout the country. The union list has 97 subjects.
B. State List: It comprises the important subjects on which the state government can

pass laws. Subjects like police, local government, trade and commerce, agriculture are within the state included in the State list. The state list has 66 subjects.
C. Concurrent List: The concurrent list comprises the subjects which are of common concern both to the centre and state government. However if there is a conflict between the central law and state law, over a subject in the Concurrent list, the central law would be effective. The concurrent list has 47 subjects.
D. Residuary Powers: Matters which are not included in the division of powers are known as residuary powers. It was felt that there can be subjects which are not mentioned in either of these lists. The central government has been given the power to legislate on the residuary subjects.
24. A. Limited freedom of speech: They have strict control of freedom of speech. People are not allowed to say anything against the government openly in public.
B. Limited rights to assemble or to protest: Protests against the government are restricted severely. Most people are put in jail or beaten up if they do
C. No freedom of media: Media is highly controlled in non-democratic governments.

Most newspapers, TV stations are owned by the government and the private companies cannot say anything against the government.
D. Control remains in the family: Many non-democratic countries are ruled by families, and the power is usually passed down to the next generation.
E. No elected parliament: They rarely have an elected parliament.

OR

Casteism is very harmful to politics and damages democratic ideals:

A. Casteism violates and goes against the basic principles of the Constitution and democracy that is of justice, equality and fraternity.
B. Due to casteism vote bank politics is given preference in India. The economic issues are pushed to the background by leaders who seek support on the basis of caste.
C. There is over-emphasis on caste interest loyalty rather than national interest. D. It weakens the mechanisation of the policy
E. The government, at the local levels, seeks to retain the traditional domination of the dominant castes thus, frustrating the emergence of a new democratic culture of free and equal citizenship,
F. Casteism leads to chaos and bargaining in party politics and ministry formation.

Besides, casteism leads to violence and polarisation on caste lines. Hence, it is very harmful to democracy and country as well.
25. a. In recent times, technology in the areas of telecommunications, computers, and internet has been changing rapidly.
b. Telegraph, telephone, internet, mobile phone and fax are widely used to contact one another around the world, to access information instantly and to communication from remote areas.
c. This has been facilitated by the satellite communication devices.

d. Through internet, information can be shared and obtained anytime and anywhere. e. Internet also allows us to send instant electronic mail and talk across the world at
negligible costs thus bringing the whole world close to each other.

OR

The factors which facilitate Globalisation are:

a. Rapid improvement in Technology which has stimulated the process of Globalization.. b. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
c. Pressure from international organizations like WTO and World Bank. d. Improvement in transportation and communication facilities.
e. Dependence of Developing countries upon Developed Countries

26.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-07

General Instructions:

CLICK HERE FOR FREE DOWNLOAD>>>>> CBSE CLASS 10 SOCIAL SAMPLE PAPER 
i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question numbers 26 are map questions from 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. Name the area which was ruled by Habsburg Empire.

OR

When was Francis Garnier commissioned by French to establish control over

Vietnam?

2. Who was Count Cavour?

OR

Name the countries which comprise Indo-China.

3. Name two important wheat growing zones of India?

4. Which two languages are generally spoken in Belgium?

5. Why is tertiary sector also termed as service sector?

6. What is Central Level Consumer Courts?

7. Give one reason to deposit money in the banks.

8. Which three issues were visualized by Frederic Sorrieu?

OR

Who were indentured labourers? Elaborate the working condition of indentured labourers?
9. What was the contribution of Natesa Shartri for the revival of folklore and folk tales?

What were his views?

10. Suggest some ways to solve the problems of land degradation.

11. What are the significances of the ports of India’s economy?

12. Explain the positive impact of social division on politics?

13. Write down the names of regional political parties dominant in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and West Bengal.
14. “Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.” Support this statement with suitable arguments.
15. “Money plays very important role in our everyday life” Explain.

16. Explain the steps taken by government to protect the consumers from exploitation?

17. Explain with suitable examples that which part of the service sector is not growing in importance.
18. What is development? What are the two aspects of development?

19. Why have the historians described the nineteenth century indentured as a ‘new system of slavery’? Explain any five reasons.

OR

Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns?

OR

Give reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.
20. Explain the different stages of development of printing technology in China.

OR

Outline the changes in technology and society which led to an increase in readers of novels in 18th century Europe.
21. Explain the different stages in the process of manufacturing of steel.

22. How would you classify the types of coal depending on the degrees of compression?

OR

Explain the features of any five eastern ports of India.

23. In what way is the Panchayat Raj experiment significant? Explain.

24. Suggest some reform proposals to overcome the challenge of Political Funding.

OR

Assess the influence of politics on the caste system.

25. Why is it important for Government to focus on the protection of unemployed and those who are working in unorganized sector?

OR

Can you illustrate the features of the New Economic policy introduced in 1991?

26. A feature is shown by an alphabet A on the given map of India. Identify and write the correct name of this feature on the line drawn on the map as per the given hint.
A. A Dam

On the same map locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols: B. A Dam on River Narmada
C. A Dam on River Tungabhadra

D. The place where Congress Session was held in September 1920. E. The place where no tax campaign was started.
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CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-07

Solution

1. The Habsburg Empire ruled over Austria-Hungary.

OR

In 1873 Francis Garnier was commissioned by French to establish control over

Vietnam.

2. Count Cavour was the chief minister of Italy. He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.

OR

Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam comprises Indo-China.

3. The Ganga-Sutlej plains in the north and black soil region in the Deccan are the two important wheat growing zones of India.
4. French and Dutch.

5. The tertiary sector is termed as service sector because tertiary sector provides support service to primary sectors and secondary sectors.
6. These are courts which settle consumer disputes at national level. Central level consumer courts deals with the cases involving claims exceeding Rs 1 crore.
7. To save money and to earn interest.

8. Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dreams of a world.
i. The first print of the series shows the people of Europe and America of the ages and social classes marching in a long train. They are offering homage to the statue of Liberty as they pass by it.
ii. His second vision named utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identify through their flags and national costume.
iii. On the earth in the foreground of the image lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions. His work shows his dream on democratic and social republics.

OR

Indentured labourers worked on the basis of contracts that did not specify any rights of labourers but gave immense power to employers. It was the form of labour widely used in the plantations from the mid-nineteenth century. Their working conditions were very miserable as the employers could impose criminal charges against them for non-fulfilment of their contracts. On the basis of those charges they could be punished and jailed. The labourers worked on the basis of contracts that did not specify any rights of the labourers and gave immense power to employers.
9. Ideas of nationalism developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore. In the late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends.
In Madras, Natesa Shastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, the Folklore of Southern India.
A. He believed that folklore was national literature;

B. It was most trustworthy manifestation of people’s real thought and characteristics
10. The problem of land degradation can be solved in the following ways:

i. Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent to solve the problem of land degradation.
ii. Planting of shelter belts of plants, control on over grazing, stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes is some of the methods to check land degradation.
iii. Proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.
11. Ports have following significance in on national economy:

i. Most of India’s trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports located along the coast.
ii. This account for 95 per cent of the country’s trade volume (68 per cent in terms of value) which is being carried through sea.
iii. Kandla port, Mumbai port, Vishakhapatnam port, Chennai port are the major ports of our countries.
12. A. Every expression of social division in politics does not lead to disasters because

wherever social divisions exist, they are reflected in politics. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community, e.g., D.M.K., AIADMK and BSP in India.
B. Social divisions of some of the other kind do exist in every society of the world and are reflected in politics.
C. In a democracy, it is only natural that political parties would talk about these divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities and policies to redress the grievance of disadvantaged communities.
13. A. Andhra Pradesh- Telgu Desam Party (1982), Telangana Rashtra Sammiti(2001) B. Karnataka- Janata Dal (secular)1999
C. West Bengal- Forward Bloc (1940), Revolutionary Socialist Party (1940), Trinamool

Congress (1977).

14. Democracy develops a harmonious social life. Democracies accommodate various social divisions. Democracies usually develop a procedure to conduct their competition. This reduces the possibility of these tensions becoming explosive or violent. In democracies, people learn to respect the differences and also evolve a mechanism to negotiate the differences. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that government functions to represent the general view. Democracy has the ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflict. Non-democratic regimes often turn a blind eye to or suppress internal social differences. Ability to handle
social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus, a definite plus point of democratic regimes.
15. The use of money plays a very important role in our everyday life. No transaction is possible without the use of money. Goods are bought and sold with the use of money. The objective of each and every person is to earn money to fulfill their daily needs. If we want to purchase any thing whether it is small or large we need money.
16. Since consumers are exploited by the sellers and manufacturers therefore consumer awareness has become inevitable in today’s time. Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position in the market. The seller tries to shift all the responsibilities on the buyer in case of complaint. Besides, sellers make false claims about the durability and quality of their products through attractive advertisement. Moreover, adulteration causes loss to the health and they suffer from monetary loss.

17. There are a large number of workers in the service sector who rarely manage to earn a living and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunities for work are available to them, e.g., workers engaged in the service sector such as small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons, cattle owners. They are facing so many problems from the MNCs. Therefore this part of the service sector is not growing in importance.
18. Development is such a situation that can fulfil the aspirations or desires of people. It is the progress or improvement in the lifestyle of the people. Two aspects of
development are:

i. Different persons can have different developmental goals.

ii. What may be development for one may not be development for the other.

19. The historians have often described the nineteenth century indentured as a ‘new system of slavery’ because it wa a practice of bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his passage to a new country or home. Most of the time the labourers were misinformed and were subjected to oppressive treatment. In this system:
i. Recruiting agents gave false information to tempt the labourers. ii. Labourers were some time, forcibly abducted.
iii. On arriving at the plantation, they found the conditions to be different from but they had imagined.
iv. Their living conditions were very harsh.

v. Their payments were very little. Deductions were made from wages if the work was found unsatisfactory. The workers had no legal rights.

OR

The poor peasants and artisans in the countryside began to work for the merchants from the towns because of the following reasons:
i. Open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. ii. Tiny plots of land did not provide enough for the family.
iii. By working for merchants, peasants could remain in the countryside and cultivate their land.
iv. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their income from cultivation.

v. The family labour resources could be fully used.

OR

The population of London expanded drastically from the middle of the eighteenth century. Its population was about 6, 75,000 by 1750s which multiplied fourfold from one million in 1810 to four million in 1880s. The reasons for this expansion were:
i. London had become a centre of almost all sections of society.

ii. People from countryside came to London for better job and future.

iii. Wooden, metal, printing, stationary and other such industries in London employed a large number of people.
iv. London dockyard also attracted a large number of employees.

v. During the First World War, many more things were begun to be manufactured in London including motor cars, electrical goods, and large factories manufacturing war materials.
20. The different stages of development of printing technology in China are:

i. From 594 AD the books were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks in China.
ii. The imperial state also got many textbooks printed for the civil services examination.
iii. By the seventeenth century urban culture developed in China. Merchants used print in their everyday life as they collected trade information.
iv. Wives of rich men, scholars and officials also began to write their autobiographies. v. In the late nineteenth century, the mechanical printing press was established.
vi. Shanghai became a hub of the new print culture.

OR

The changes in technology and society which led to an increase in readers of the novel in eighteenth century Europe were manifold.
A. The invention of the print in eighteenth century led to popularity of novels because now it became quite easy to print novels because now it became quite easy to print novels in large numbers.
B. The novels dealt with many social issues, such as love, marriage, proper conduct of men and women. Common people attracted towards them.

C. Novels appealed to all the sections of the society both middle class people like shopkeepers and clerks, as well as aristocratic class.
D. Novels not only attacked the ills of society, but also suggested remedies. So they were liked by all.
E. The novels became popular medium of entertainment among the middle class and women readers.
F. The creation of libraries, cost-cutting printing techniques and hiring out of books on an hourly basis allowed readership to expand beyond the aristocratic class.
G. Socially, as the market for books grew, novelists were freed of aristocratic patronage, and could now explore different dimensions of the society in their novels, for example, the lives of women and the working class.
All this led to an obvious increase in the number of people who read books in eighteenth-century Europe.
21. The different stages in manufacturing of steel are as follows:

i. Iron Ore: Transport of raw material to plant.

ii. Blast Furnace: Iron ore is then melted. Lime stone is fluxing material which is added. Slag is removed. Coke is burnt to heat the ore.
iii. Pig Iron: Molten materials poured into moulds called pigs. iv. Shaping Metal: Rolling, pressing, casting and forging.
v. Steel making: Pig iron is further purified by melting and oxidizing the impurities.

Manganese, nickel, chromium are added.

22. Following are the types of coal depending upon the degree of compression:

i. Peat: Decaying plants in swamps produced peat, which has a low carbon and high moisture contents. It has very low heating capacity.
ii. Lignite: Lignite is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. The principal lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu and used for generation of electricity.
iii. Bituminous: Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperature is bituminous coal. It is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnace.
iv. Anthracite: It is highest quality of hard coal.

OR

Five major eastern ports of India are:

i. Tuticorin Port: Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu is located at the extreme south-eastern end of the country. It has a natural harbour and a rich hinterland. It handles cargoes to Sri Lanka and Maldives.
ii. Chennai Port: Chennai is the one of the oldest ports of Tamil Nadu and has an artificial harbour. It ranks next to Mumbai, in terms of volume of trade and cargo.
iii. Vishakhapatnam Port: Vishakhapatnam is the deepest; landlocked and protected port on the east coast.
iv. Paradip Port: Paradip port in located Odisha. It is in mainly developed to export of iron ore.
v. Kolkata Port: Kolkata is a major inland riverine and a tidal port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin.
23. A. There are now about 36 lakhs elected representatives in the panchayat and municipalities all over the country.
B. There is reservation for women, SC and ST in these bodies.

C. This number is bigger than the population of many countries in the world.

D. Constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.
E. It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

24. Reform proposals to overcome the challenge of Political Funding:

i. Role of money in elections in India has been increasing for the last few years. It is necessary to curb the role of money to make democracy more successful.
ii. Auditing of account of the political parties and state funding are good reform proposals. These reforms will bring transparency in the finances of the political parties.
iii. There should be state funding which will reduce the expenditure on elections.

Role of money will be less and poor people may also be able to contest elections. iv. Election Commission should work honestly while checking the income taxes filed
by the political parties.

v. Citiens should be encouraged to give more donations to parties. such donations should be exempted from income tax.

OR

A. Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within its sub-castes. B. Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or
communities.

C. New kinds of caste groups have entered politics like backward and forward castes. D. Politics in caste has allowed many disadvantaged caste groups to demand their
share of power.

E. Caste politics has helped the Dalits and OBCs to gain better access to decision- making.
Thus, caste plays different kinds of roles in politics. Several political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for an end to discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more accesses to land, resources and opportunities.
25. Due to following factors it is important for Government to focus on the protection of unemployed and those who are working in unorganized sector.
a. Government has to ensure equality among rich and poor citizens of the countries. b. Citizens are the important assets of the countries. So it is the duty of government
to take care of its citizens.

c. Unemployment will cause anarchy in the country.

d. Massive campaigns and representation by people’s organization have influenced the government.
e. For the welfare of labour and those who are working in unorganized sector, Government has made labour laws. So it is the duty of government to follow those laws.

OR

Following are the features of New Economic Policy introduced in 1991:

a. Liberalized policy towards foreign trade and foreign investment. b. Introduction of foreign capital investment.
c. Removal of trade barriers.

d. Reduction in the role of Public sector. e. Promotion to private sector.
f. Reforms in the financial sector.

g. Liberalization of import licensing.

26.

h. Freedom is given to the MNCs to set up their industrial units.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-08

General Instructions:

CLICK HERE FOR FREE DOWNLOAD>>>>> CBSE CLASS 10 SOCIAL SAMPLE PAPER 
i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question numbers 26 are map questions 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. What was the concept of modern state?

OR

Name the war after which Tonkin and Anaam came under the French control?

2. Who was called ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’?

OR

What was the Vietminh?

3. Name the rain-fed millet crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation?
4. Which type of power sharing is called checks and balances?

5. What are the criteria for the classification of economic activities?

6. What is state level consumer courts?

7. Give one reason to deposit money in the banks.

8. Identify Napoleon, telling the part played by him in the France.

Explain any three challenges faced by the new Republic of Vietnam after 1945?

9. Who gave the slogan “Inquilab – Zindabad”? What do you understand by this slogan?

10. Distinguish between Khadar and Bhangar.

11. Describe the advantages of waterways.

12. How far do you agree with the statement that ‘all social differences are not always an accident’? Explain.
13. Explain the constitutional measures to counter challenges faced by political parties.

14. What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracy?

15. Explain the different types of objects used as money before the introduction of coins?

16. What ideas show that the rise of consumer awareness is essential?

17. Why is working in an unorganized sector not considered secure?

18. What is development? What are the two aspects of development?

19. Define the term trade surplus. How was the income received from trade surplus with

India used by Britain?

OR

Explain how the conditions of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century of Europe.

OR

Why well-off Londoners supported the need of building houses for the poor in the 19th century?
20. What were the chief characteristics of the earliest print culture in Japan? Explain.

OR

Describe in brief about any two famous novels written by Charles Dickens.

21. What is the contribution of industry to national economy in India? Compare it with the East Asian Countries. What is the desired growth and present position of industry in GDP?
22. What are non-conventional sources of energy? Why do they have a bright future in

India?

Explain the major sea ports of India situated on western coastline.

23. In what way is the Panchayat Raj experiment significant? Explain.

24. What is the nature and scope of Democracy in the modern world?

OR

How does communalism threaten the Indian Democracy? Explain.

25. Can you illustrate the features of the New Economic policy introduced in 1991?

OR

Explain the factors which facilitate Globalisation.

26. Features ‘A’ is marked in the given political map of India. Identify this feature with the help of the following information and write their correct name on the line marked on the map.
A. A leading golden fiber crop producing state

On the same map of India locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols: B. A leading sugarcane producing state
C. A coffee growing state on the eastern state

D. The place where Congress Session was held in December 1920. E. The state to which Gudem rebels belonged.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-08

Solution

1. The concept of modern state was a centralized power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory.

OR

After Franco-Chinese war the Tonkin and Anaam came under the French control.

2. Giuseppe Mazzini was called ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’ by Austrian

Chancellor Duke Metternich

OR

Vietminh was The League for the Independence of Vietnam.

3. Jowar is the rain fed millet crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
4. Horizontal distribution of power

5. A. Nature of economic activities

B. Ownership of assets

C. Term of employment

6. These are courts which settle consumer disputes at the states level. State level Consumer

Courts deals with the cases involving claims up to Rs 20 lakhs to Rs 1 crore.

7. To save money and to earn interest.

8. Napoleon was a great French General, who won many battles for the revolutionary France and raised his nation’s prestige. In many parts of Europe, like in the Dutch Republic in Switzerland, Italy and Germany, he simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from the serfdom and the manorial dues. There was a time when he had become a terror for all the European monarchs. But in the end, his limited resources collapsed in the face of fourth coalition of the European
nations. He was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815 A.D. and was sent as a prisoner to spend his last days at the small island of St. Helena where he died in the year 1821 A.D.

Three challenges faced by the new Republic of Vietnam after 1945 were:

i. The French tried to regain control of Vietnam with the help of Vietnamese Emperor Bai Dai who was acting as their puppet. As a result, the New Republic had to fight the French occupation for more than eight years (1945 to 1954).
ii. The peace negotiation in Geneva following the war with France divided the Vietnam into two parts, North Vietnam and South Vietnam which led to a conflict.
iii. The entry of the US into war in 1965 brought further miseries to the Vietnamese people.
9. a. The famous slogan Inquilab Zindabad was given by Hasrat Mohani. This famous slogan inspired the activities of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association particularly Ashfaqulla Khan, Bhagat Singh and Chandrashekhar Azad.
b. It is a Hindustani phrase taken from Persian which translates to “Long Live

Revolution”.

c. It was a common phrase used by revolutionaries during the British rule over India. d. It was popularized in the activities of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association by revolutionaries such as Bhagat Singh and Chandrashekhar Azad, who used it to
urge future generations to endorse, and support the party’s rebellious actions.

10.

Khadar
Bhangar

1. The khadar soils are found in the low areas of valley.
1. The Bhangar soils are found in the higher reaches.

2. These soils are finer in texture.
2. These are coarser in texture.

3. These soils are more fertile.
3. These soils are less fertile.

4. These soils are known as new alluvial.
4. These soils are known are old alluvial.
11. Waterways have some distinct advantages, like:

i. It is the cheapest means of transport.

ii. It is the best means of transport to carry bulky and heavy goods at lower costs. iii. It is fuel-efficient as well as environment friendly.
iv. All perennial rivers can be used almost throughout the year.

12. A. All social differences are not because of an accident of birth. There are many differences that are the result of our choice.
B. For example, to follow a particular religion different from that of one’s family,

choosing an occupation different from that of the family traditionally prefers. All these may cause social differences.
C. Now the whole world has turned into a global village. The countries which were once highly homogeneous are undergoing rapid change with the influx of people from other parts of the world.
D. Some differences are also based on ideology. For example, in India, there are many political parties based on different ideologies.
13. The constitutional measures to counter challenges faced by political parties include

A. The constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. This is called anti defection law.
B. The Supreme Court made it mandatory for every candidate to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him.
C. The Election Commission made it necessary for political parties to hold elections and file their Income Tax Returns.
D. A law is passed to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.

14. Following outcomes can be reasonably expected out of democracies:

A. Accountability to citizens and to respond to their needs and aspirations.

B. To run the administration & the finances of the country efficiently & democratically. C. Transparency in the working of government’s machinery.
D. To ensure holding of free and fair elections.

E. To work for the development of both the majority and the minority communities.

15. Before the introduction of coins, people used the things related to their domestic life. For example in this era people used grains and cattle as money. People use milk, cotton and crops to conduct business, There after came the use of metallic coins-gold, silver, copper coins- a phase which continued well into the last century.
16. Since consumers are exploited by the sellers and manufacturers therefore consumer awareness has become inevitable in today’s time. Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position in the market. The seller tries to shift all the responsibilities on the buyer in case of complaint. Besides, sellers make false claims about the durability and quality of their products through attractive advertisement. Moreover, adulteration causes loss to the health and they suffer from monetary loss.
17. A. Working in unorganized sector is not considered secured because unorganized sectors are not registered by the government and remain outside the control of the

government.

B. These are small and scattered units.

C. They don’t follow rules and regulations prescribed by the government. D. Jobs in these sectors are not regular, even salaries are very less.
18. Development is such a situation that can fulfil the aspirations or desires of people. It is the progress or improvement in the lifestyle of the people. Two aspects of development are:
i. Different persons can have different developmental goals.

ii. What may be development for one may not be development for the other.

19. Trade surplus: When the value of exports is higher than value of imports, it called as trade surplus.
i. Britain used this surplus to balance its trade deficits with other countries – that is, with countries from which Britain was importing more than it was selling to.
ii. This is how a multi-lateral settlement system works – it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
iii. By helping Britain balance its deficits, India played a crucial role in the late nineteenth century world economy.
iv. Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pension of British officials in India.

OR

The conditions of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century of Europe. i. Workers travelled great distances in the hope of working in the mills.
ii. For workers, getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased.
iii. The numbers seeking work were always more than the jobs available.

iv. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits.

OR

Living in slums was very dangerous for the labourers. They lived up to and average age of 29 years as compared to the average life expectancy of 55 among the higher the higher

and the middle classes. The well-off Londoners supported the need of building houses for the poor in the nineteenth century because:
i. Threat to pubilc health: The vast mass of one-room houses occupied by the poor were seen as a serious threat to public health: they were overcrowded, badly ventilated, and lacked sanitation. Such slums were not only harmful for the slum dwellers but they were also threat to the public health and could easily lead to any epidemic.
ii. Fire hazards: Poor housing could prose a great fire hazard and could engulf other areas in the fire disaster.
iii. Fear of revolution: Especially after the Russian Rvolution of 1917, it was felt that poor housing could lead to any social disaster and could lead to rebellion by the poor slum dwellers. Workers’ mass housing schemes became neccesary to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious.
20. The chief characteristics of the earliest print culture in Japan were:

i. Buddhist monasteries from China introduced hand printing technology into Japan. ii. The oldest Japanese book printed in AD 868 is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra.
iii. In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
iv. Printing of visual materials led to increase in publishing practices.

v. In the eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles city at Edo, illustrated collections of paintings depicted urban culture involving artisans, courtesans and tea house gathering.
vi. Books for women, musical instruments, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, proper etiquettes were published.

OR

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Charles Dicken’s two novels:

1. Hard Times – This novel was published in 1854. It describes the terrible effects of industrialisation on people’s lives.in this novel, he describes coketown, a fictious industrial city as a grim place full of machinery, smoking industries, river polluted purple and buildings that all looked the same. Workers there are known as hands as if their only indentity is to work and operate machines.
2. Oliver Twist – This novel was published in 1838. It focuses on the terrible conditions of

urban life under industrial cabitalism. This novel is the tale of a poor orphan who lived in the world of petty criminals and beggers. He is brought up in a cruel workhouse, oliver was finally adopted by a wealthy man and lived hapilly everafter.
21. The contribution of industry to the national economy has not been satisfactory for the last two decades. It has stagnated at 17 percent for mining quarrying, electricity and gas. In comparison to India’s 17 percent share in GDP, the East Asian countries have contributed 25 to 35 per cent to their GDP. The desired growth over the next decade is 12 percent. At present growth rate is about 9 to 10 percent and it is expected that we can achieve the growth rate of 12 per cent by some efforts like setting up of the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC).
22. Resources which we can use again and again and which are renewable in nature are non- conventional resources of energy. Due to the following reasons they have bright future in India:
i. India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water, wind and biomass.

ii. India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.

iii. India now ranks as a wind super power in the world. States like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Lakshadweep have important wind farms.
iv. In India, the Gulf of Kuchchh, provides ideal conditions for utilizing tidal energy.

v. There are several hundred hot spot springs in India, which could be uded to generate geothermal energy.

OR

The major sea ports of India situated on western coastline of India are:

i. Kandla Port: Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port developed soon after independence to ease the volume of trade on Mumbai port in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the partition. Kandla is a tidal port.
ii. Mumbai Port: Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour.
iii. Jawaharlal Nehru Port: Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port for this region.
iv. Marmagao Port (Goa): It is the premier iron exporting port of the country. This port account for about fifty per cent of India’s iron ore export.

v. New Mangalore Port: New Mangalore port located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines.
vi. Kochi Port: Kochi is the extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.
23. A. There are now about 36 lakhs elected representatives in the panchayat and municipalities all over the country.
B. There is reservation for women, SC and ST in these bodies.

C. This number is bigger than the population of many countries in the world.

D. Constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.
E. It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

24. A. There is a due respect for democracy in the modern world. It is a better form of government as a comparison to its alternatives.
B. It may be slow and less efficient but it is an accountable, legitimate and responsible form of government.
C. Democratic rights are not limited to political rights like, the right to vote, to stand in elections and form political organizations. A democracy should grant some social and economic rights to its citizens.
D. The power-sharing in a democracy is extended to the power-sharing between government and social groups.
E. Modern democracy cannot value only the voice of the majority, but it respects the voice of minority as well.
F. However, the democracy has extended its scope of government and its activities to eliminate discrimination based on caste, religion and gender.

OR

A. Communalism involves religious prejudice, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
B. A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community.
C. Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. In electoral politics, this often involves a special appeal to the interests or emotions of votes of one religion in preference to others.

D. Sometimes communalism in India takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre.
E. Communal prejudice and propaganda need to be countered in everyday life and religion based mobilization need to be counted in the area of politics.
25. Following are the features of New Economic Policy introduced in 1991:

a. Liberalized policy towards foreign trade and foreign investment. b. Introduction of foreign capital investment.
c. Removal of trade barriers.

d. Reduction in the role of Public sector. e. Promotion to private sector.
f. Reforms in the financial sector.

g. Liberalization of import licensing.

h. Freedom is given to the MNCs to set up their industrial units.

OR

The factors which facilitate Globalisation are:

a. Rapid improvement in Technology which has stimulated the process of Globalization.. b. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
c. Pressure from international organizations like WTO and World Bank. d. Improvement in transportation and communication facilities.
e. Dependence of Developing countries upon Developed Countries

26.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-09

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question number 26 is map question of 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. Name the secret societies founded by Giuseppe Mazzini.

OR

Who was the head of The Revolutionary Society formed by Phan Boi Chau in 1903?

2. Who described the Italian revolutionary nationalist Mazzini as the most dangerous enemy of our social order?

OR

Name the French officer who led an attack against the ruling Nguyen dynasty.

3. Which is the kharif crop account for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country?
4. Which type of power sharing is called checks and balances?

5. Why do the agriculture and allied activities still happen to be the major source of employment?
6. Name the Agency that develops standards for goods and services?

7. Give one special feature that distinguish formal sector from informal sector.

8. Identify Cavour, telling the part played by him in the unification of Italy.

OR

What was the approach of French behind the necessity of colonies? Explain.

9. Mention the features of the flag which was designed by Gandhiji?

10. How can the land be saved from degradation?

11. Why is rooftop rainwater harvesting the most common practice in Shillong in spite of the fact that Cherapunjee and Mawsynram are situated only at a distance of 55 kilometers from there? Explain.
12. Who was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement? Describe the importance of this movement.
13. Name the National political party that has been in power in West Bengal for 30 years?

Write any two points related to this political party.

14. Why is a democratic government considered less efficient? Give any three reasons.

15. Suggest some ways by which small farmers can get cheap credit.

16. Highlight the rise of consumer movement in India since 1960s.

17. Describe the developments which changed today’s developing countries from farming nations to nations depending on tertiary sectors.
18. Which non-material factors does a person consider before accepting a job at a far off place?
19. What was the impact of technology on food availability? Explain with the help of examples.

OR

How were the lives of workers negatively affected due to abundance of the labour? Explain.

OR

Describe the steps taken to solve the problem of housing in Bombay.

20. Explain the main features of the first book printed by Gutenberg.

OR

What did G.A. Henty write about in his novel? Explain.

21. How will you elaborate the importance of manufacturing? Explain.

22. Describe the importance of minerals in human life.

OR

Efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for local, national and global trade of today. Explain.
23. What major steps were taken in 1992 towards decentralization?

24. What is foundational Challenge? Explain with the suitable example of those countries who are trying to establish a democratic setup.

OR

How can we achieve the objective for more representation for women as elected representation?
25. Why is it important for Government to focus on the protection of unemployed and those who are working in unorganized sector?

OR

Can you illustrate the features of the New Economic policy introduced in 1991?

26. Two features A and B are marked in the given map of India.

A. Software Technology park

B. Electronic capital of India

Locate and label the place on the given outline political map of India

C. Software technology park of Kerala

D. The place where Jallianwala Bhag massacre took place. E. The place of Peasants Satyagraha.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-09

Solution

1. Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne are secret societies founded by

Giuseppe Mazzini.

OR

Prince Cuong De was the head of The Revolutionary Society formed by Phan Boi Chau in

1903.

2. Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich described the Italian revolutionary nationalist

Mazzini as the most dangerous enemy of our social order.

OR

Francis Garnier was the French officer who led an attack against the ruling Nguyen dynasty.
3. Groundnut accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.

4. Horizontal distribution of power.

5. This is because the Governments could not create enough jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors of our economy.
6. Bureau of Indian Standards develops stndards for goods and services.

7. RBI supervises the functioning of the formal sources of credit while no any organisation is there to supervise the lending activities in informal sources of credit.
8. The real credit for the unification of Italy goes to Cavour, who became the Prime Minister of Sardinia in 1852 A.D. He then dedicated himself his body and soul together to achieve his goal of independence and the unification of Italy. For this purpose, he took recourse
to diplomatic manoeuvres or shrewd diplomacy. He took sides in many ways to attract other states like Lombardy, Modena, Parma and Tuscany to throw off the Austrian Yoke and join Sardinia. He had unified the whole of Italy under Sardinia.

OR

Following were reasons due to which French wanted to establish colonies:

i. They wanted to exploit the resources of colonies. Colonies were considered essential

to supply natural resources and other essential goods.

ii. To bring the benefit of civilization to uncivilized societies. Most of the European countries were of the opinion that European countries were of the opinion that Afro- Asian people were uncivilized and thought it was the mission of the advanced. European countries were to bring the benefits of civilization to the backward people.
9. A. In 1921 Gandhiji had designed the swaraj flag.

B. It was a tricolor flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the

Gandhian ideal of self-help.

C. Tricolors were-red, green and white.

D. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

10. i. After deforestation, afforestation can be done. ii. Proper management of grazing can be done.
iii. Shelter belts can be planted to save the land from degradation.

iv. Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes are some of the methods to check land degradation.
v. Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.
11. Rooftop rainwater harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong in spite of the fact that the highest rainfall receiving areas in the world, Cherapunjee and Mawsynram, are situated only at a distance of 55 kilometers from there. This is because Shillong receives heavy rainfall during monsoon period but the state faces acute water shortage. Today this area faces an acute water shortage. This is a consequence of extensive deforestation and no efforts have been made toward rainwater harvesting. It is mainly due to lack of water storage system. Nearly every household in the city has a rooftop rain water harvesting structure. Almost 15-25 per cent of the total water requirement of the household comes from rooftop water harvesting.
12. A. The leader of civil rights movement was Martin Luther King Jr.

B. Martin Luther King Jr. set an example of demanding equal rights without the use of force or aggression. He became so popular and well liked that he was hated just as intensely by those who disagreed with the equal rights movement.
C. He also gained government support due to his choice to make a point and not retaliate with violence.
D. King’s efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his “I Have

a Dream” speech. There, he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest speakers in U.S.history.
13. Communist party of India-Marxist (CPI-M)

A. Founded in 1964. Believes in Marxism-Leninism, supports socialism, and secularism. B. Accepts democratic elections as a useful means for securing the objective of socio-
economic justice in India.

C. Has been in power in West Bengal without a break for 30 years. D. It is anti colonialism and promotes social and economic justice.,
E. They believe that revolution can come about through an alliance with workers and peasants
14. i. Deliberations and discussions in the legislature consumes lot of time.

ii. The worries of majority and public opinion stands as a big obstacle in the efficient working of the government.
iii. Deliberations and negations can cause delay in taking decisions or getting the plans executed. This also adversely affects efficiency.
15. Following are some means by which farmers can lend the loans:

i. Small farmers can get cheap credit by forming cooperatives. They can form cooperatives which can obtain large loan from the bank.
ii. The cooperatives use the bank loan to provide loans to members at cheaper rates than the moneylenders.
iii. Small farmers can also get loan from the banks if they are able to provide collateral to the banks.
iv. Small farmers can also get loan from Self Help Groups by joining the membership of it.
16. In India the consumer movement as a social force originated with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interest of consumers against unethical unfair practices. Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black, marketing, adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organized form in the 1960s. Till the 1970s, consumer organizations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions. They formed consumer groups to look into the malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in the road passenger transport. More recently, India witnessed an
upsurge in the number of consumer groups.

17. A. In the last 35 years tertiary sector has achieved importance. It has emerged as single

largest producing sector in India.

B. This because in growing economies, certain basic services like good hospitals, schools, banks, and insurance companies required.
C. With the growth of agriculture sector infrastructure facilities like transport storage is required.
D. The richer people want restaurants, shopping malls, tourism etc in big cities. It has become essential service.
E. In developing countries, there is no shortage of skilled workers.

18. The non-material factors does a person considers before accepting a job at a far off place are as follows:
i. Facilities for him and his family. ii. Good working atmosphere.
iii. More opportunities of learning. iv. Chances of growth.
v. Job security and social security.

19. The impact of technology on food availability were:

i. Technology in the form of improvements in transport – faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped to move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
ii. Earlier, animals were shipped alive from America to Europe and then slaughter when they arrived there. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor.
iii. Then came a technology namely refrigerated ships, which enabled to transport perishable foods over long distances.
iv. Now animals were slaughtered for food and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping cost and lowered meat prices in Europe.
v. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat to their diet.

OR

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The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers adversely.

a. Plenty of labourers: As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds thronged to the cities. When there is plenty of labour wages are low.

b. Netwoking and sources: The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks for friendship and kin relations. If there was a relative or a friend in a factory, the chances of getting a job quickly were more likely.
c. Wastage of time and money: Those jobe-seekers having poor or not social connection had to wait weeks, spend nights under bridges or in night shelters. Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities.
d. Seasonal type of labour: Seasonality for work in many industries means prolonged periods without works. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again.
Although, wages increased somewhat in the early nineteenth century but they tell us little about the welfare of the workers.

OR

The following steps were taken to solve the housing problem in Bombay:

i. Chawls were built. It was a multi-storeyed structure which were built in the native parts of the town. These houses were largely owned by private landlords, such as merchants, bankers and buildings.
ii. The City of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898. It focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city centre.
iii. In 1918, a Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable. But it had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
iv. The city of Bombay developed massive reclamation projects. Reclamation refers to the reclaiming of marshy or submerged area or other wasteland for settlements.
v. The seven island of Bombay were joined into one land mass only over a period of time. The earliest project began in 1784.
20. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system of printing press. The first book printed by John Guttenberg was the holy book Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. These printed books has following features:
i. It closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout. ii. The types of metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten style.
iii. Boarders of the Bible were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns.

iv. Printing of books for the commons and for elites was different.

OR

A. G.A. Henty’s historical adventure novels for boys were also wildly popular during the height of British Empire.
B. They aroused the excitement and adventure of conquering strange lands. C. They were set in Mexico, Alexandria, Siberia and many other countries.
D. They were always about young boys who witness grand historical events, get involved in some military action and show what they called English courage.
E. In under Drake’s Flag two young Elizabethan adventurers face their apparently approach death, but still remember to assert their Englishness.
F. He wrote novels for young boys idealising a new type of man; someone who was powerful, assertive, independent and daring.
G. He represented the colonisers heroic and honourable.

H. He wrote about strange lands being conquered by the young Englishmen.

21. The manufacturing industry is of great importance for a country’s economy. It helps in following ways:
i. Uplifts agriculture sector: Manufacturing industry not only help in modernizing agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sector. Therefore it is of great importance to the country’s economy.
ii. Eradicates poverty and unemployment: Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from the country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India.
iii. Boosts trade and commerece: Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
iv. Makes country prosperous: Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous.
22. Minerals are indispensable part of human life.

i. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals.
ii. The railway lines and the tarmac of the roads, our implements and machinery too are made from minerals.

iii. Cars buses, trains, aeroplans are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth.
iv. In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
v. Availability of the minerals helps in the economic development of the country. vi. Our food too contains minerals.

OR

We use different materials and services in our daily life. Some of these are available in our immediate surroundings, while other requirements are met by bringing things from other places. Goods and services do not move from supply locals to demand locals on their own. The movement of these goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transport. Some people are engaged in facilitating these movements. These people are known to be traders who make the products come to the consumers by transportation. Thus, the place of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. Transport promotes internal as well as international trade. It helps to maintain the defence of a country, transport and communication contributes to the promotion of tourism and it also brings foreign exchange. Therefore, efficient means of transport is a pre-requisite for or local, national and global trade as well as for rapid development.
23. A major step towards decentralization was taken in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.
A. It was constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
B. States were reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes.
C. At least one third of all positions were reserved for women.

D. An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
E. The state governments were required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varied State to state.
24. Different countries face different kinds of challenges. At least one-fourth of the globe is

still not under a democratic government. The challenge for democracy in these parts of the world is very stark. These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transaction to democracy and then instituting democracy government. This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state. Example: Iraq is facing the foundational challenge. Widespread sectarian violence as the new government fails to establish its authority.

OR

A. Increasing women’s representation in the government can empower women and is necessary to achieve gender parity.
B. Women, as the conventional primary caretakers of children, often have a more prominent role than men in advocating for children, resulting in a “double dividend” in terms of the benefits of women’s representation.
C. Female representatives not only advance women’s rights but also advance the rights of children. Seats must be reserved for women in elected bodies like the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha, the State Assemblies, etc.
D. Emphasis should be given to enhancing the literacy rate among women.

E. Political parties need to be convinced to reserve tickets for women contestants.

F. Only reserving seats for women in government jobs are not enough. It should be adequate and be implemented in the strict sense.
25. Due to following factors it is important for Government to focus on the protection of unemployed and those who are working in unorganized sector.
a. Government has to ensure equality among rich and poor citizens of the countries. b. Citizens are the important assets of the countries. So it is the duty of government to
take care of its citizens.

c. Unemployment will cause anarchy in the country.

d. Massive campaigns and representation by people’s organization have influenced the government.
e. For the welfare of labour and those who are working in unorganized sector, Government has made labour laws. So it is the duty of government to follow those laws.

OR

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26.

Following are the features of New Economic Policy introduced in 1991:

a. Liberalized policy towards foreign trade and foreign investment. b. Introduction of foreign capital investment.
c. Removal of trade barriers.

d. Reduction in the role of Public sector. e. Promotion to private sector.
f. Reforms in the financial sector.

g. Liberalization of import licensing.

h. Freedom is given to the MNCs to set up their industrial units.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-10

General Instructions:

i. The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

ii. Questions from serial number 1 to7 are very short answer type questions. Each question carries one mark.
iii. Questions from serial number 8 to18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
iv. Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
v. Question number 26 is map question of 5 marks.

vi. Questions at Serial Number – 20, 22, 24 & 25 have Internal Choice. Attempt any one option out of the given in each of these questions.

1. Write any one statement regarding the doctrine of liberal nationalism?

OR

Name the countries which comprise Indo-China.

2. Which crop is used both as food and fodder?

3. Which type of power sharing is called checks and balances?

4. Why do the agriculture and allied activities still happen to be the major source of employment?
5. Which right of the consumer is violated if the consumers are not allowed to get their claims settled against the manufacturers in case they are cheated or exploited?
6. In which year Professor Mohammad Yunus received the Nobel Prize for Peace?

7. Can you make a distinction b/w the revolution of 1830 & the revolution of 1848 in France?

OR

How did the teachers contribute to national movement in Vietnam? Explain.

8. Can you explain why some Congress leaders were reluctant to boycott the council

elections of November 1920?

9. Explain the three steps that is involved in the complex process of resource planning.

10. Why dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects?

11. Explain the negative impact of social division on politics?

12. Name the kings who had been restored to power after Vienna Congress by the conservatives.

OR

Which is the most visible form of French control over Vietnam?

13. Which national party draws inspiration from the teachings of Mahatma Phule and

Periyar? Write any three points related to this party.

14. What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracy?

15. How will you justify that interest on loans is a main source of income of the banks?

16. Where can a consumer go to get justice against unfair trade practices? Explain.

17. What is the criterion to classify an economic activity as secondary sector activity?

Explain.

18. What is development? What are the two aspects of development?

19. After nineteenth century, how did the indentured labourers discover own ways of survival? Explain.

OR

Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns?

OR

What form of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people?
20. How did China remain a major producer of printed material for a long time?

OR

Examine the contribution of different novelists of Hindi in India.

21. Explain the different stages in the process of manufacturing of steel.

22. Why there is a need of conservation of minerals?

OR

Which agency provides the air travel service in north-eastern and off-shore areas of

India? Explain why air transport is preferred in north-eastern states of India.

23. What policies strengthened the federalism of India?

24. Do you have any source to get the information about the working of government?

Explain.

OR

How does communalism threaten the Indian Democracy? Explain.

25. In what ways the globalisation affected the life of Sushila?

OR

Explain the factors which facilitate Globalisation.

26. Two features A and B are marked in the given political map of India.

A. Biggest port of India

B. Oldest artificial Port

Locate and Label with appropriate symbols on the same map given for identification. C. International Airport Amritsar
D. The place where Indian National Congress December 1929 Session was held. E. The place where no tax campaign was started.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science

Sample Paper-10

Solution

1. It stood for freedom of Individual, for equality of all before law and it emphasized government by consent.

OR

Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam comprises Indo-China.

2. Maize can be used as both food and fodder .

3. Horizontal distribution of power.

4. This is because the governments could not create enough jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors of our economy.
5. The right to seek redressal of the consumer is violated if the consumers are not allowed to get their claims settled against the manufacturer or are duped.
6. In 2006 Mohammad Yunus received the Noble Prize for peace.

7.

The Revolution of 1830s
The Revolution 1848

1. This revolution was led by Liberal nationalists belonging to the educated middle-class elites of France.
1. This revolution was started by the unemployed poor peasants and workers.

2. By this revolution the kings of Bourbon dynasty restored to power by conservatives were overthrown by the liberal nationalists.
2. Through this revolution a republic was established on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise.

3. A constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe as its head was established in France.
3. Constitutional monarchy was abolished so the king Louis Philippe had fled away.

OR

The teachers played a major role in the nationalist movement of Vietnam.

i. The Vietnamese teachers did not follow the curriculum framed by the French.

ii. Sometimes there was an open opposition and at other times there was an open opposition and at other times there was a silent resistance on their part.
iii. As the number of Vietnamese teachers increased in the lower classes they quietly modified the text and criticized what was written in the books.
8. Many within the Congress were, however concerned about the proposals given by Gandhiji. Certain sections within the Congress believed that colonialism could only be fought from inside the government apparatus. They were reluctant to boycott the council elections of November 1920 because the feared that the Movement might lead to popular violence. In the months between September and December there was instance tussle within the congress. For a while there seemed no meeting point between the supporters and the opponents of the movement. Finally, at the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non-cooperation program was adopted.
9. The the three steps involved in the complex process of resource planning are:

i. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
ii. Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
iii. Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

10. A. Dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects because they serve more than one purpose. They offer many ways to manage our water resources for various purposes.
B. Dams are constructed for the irrigation of fields, generation and distribution of electricity and to control floods.
C. Dams are constructed to conserve water, vegetation and soil. D. They also help to promote tourism.
11. Social divisions impact politics in negative ways :

A. In Northern Ireland, there has been a violent and bitter conflict for many years.

Northern Ireland population was divided into Protestant (53 per cent) and Roman

Catholics (44 per cent).

B. The Catholics were represented by Nationalist parties who wanted to be unified with the Republic of Ireland.
C. In contrast, Protestants were represented by Unionists who wanted to remain with

the U.K. Hundreds of civilians, militants and security forces were killed in the fight between unionists and nationalists.
D. Disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries due to ethnic and religious differences is another example.
12. The delegates of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. They drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power by the conservatives, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.

OR

Military and Economic domination was the most visible form of French control over Vietnam. The French also built a system that tried to reshape the culture of the Vietnamese.
13. The party that draws inspiration from the ideas of Mahatma Phule is BSP. ( Bahujan

Samaj Party ). Policies of BSP are:
1. It seeks to represent and secure power for the bahujan samaj which includes the

Dalits, Adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities,

2. It stands for the cause of securing interests and welfare of the oppressed people.

3. The Party shall regard its ideology as a movement for ending exploitation of the weaker sections and suppression of the deprived through social and economic change in keeping with the above stated chief aim, and its political activity and participation in governance as an instrument of furthering such a movement and bringing in such
a change.

4. All citizens of India, being equal before law, are entitled to be treated as equal in true sense and in all matters and all walks of life, and where equality does not exist it has to be fostered and where equality is denied it has to be upheld and fought for.
14. Following outcomes can be reasonably expected out of democracies:

A. Accountability to citizens and to respond to their needs and aspirations. B. To run the administration and the finances of the country efficiently and
democratically.

C. Transparency in the working of government’s machinery. D. To ensure holding of free and fair elections.
E. To work for the development of both the majority and the minority communities.

15. Banks mediate between those who have surplus funds and those who are in need of these funds. It means that a bank mediates between borrowers and depositors. Banks charges very high interest rate on loans than what they offer to the depositors. The difference between what is charged from borrowers and what is paid to depositors is their main source of income. In these days’ banks started so many schemes just to attract the borrowers. Banks offer loans at attractive interest rate. The main motive behind all these steps of banks is to earn huge profit.
16. The consumers can take recourse to legal measures to get justice against unfair trade practices. For this reason the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 is popularly known COPRA was forumlated. Under COPRA there is a provision for three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at district, state and national level to redress consumer disputes.
i. The district level courts deal with cases of claims up to Rs 20 lakhs.

ii. The state level courts deal with cases of claim between to Rs 20 lakhs to Rs 1 crore. iii. The National level courts deal with cases of claims more than Rs 1 crore.
Consumers can appeal accordingly depending upon their degree of damage done by the product
17. A. The secondary sector covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity.
B. The product is not produced by nature but has to be made by some process of manufacturing.
C. This could be in a factory, a workshop or at home. For example, using sugar canes as raw material we make sugar.
18. Development is such a situation that can fulfil the aspirations or desires of people. It is the progress or improvement in the lifestyle of the people. Two aspects of development are:
i. Different persons can have different developmental goals.

ii. What may be development for one may not be development for the other.

19. The nineteenth century indenture has been described as a ‘new system of slavery’.

Migrants were provided false information about living and working conditions. On arrival at the plantations, labourers found conditions to be different from what they had

imagined. Living and working conditions were harsh, and there were few legal rights. Therefore, the indentured workers discovered their own ways of surviving.
i. Many of them escaped into wilds, though if caught, they would face severe punishment.
ii. Others developed new forms of individual and collective self-expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new.
iii. In Trinidad, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival, called Hosay in which workers of all races and religions joined.
iv. The protest religion of Rastafarianism is said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to Caribbean. Many cultural things from different places fused their original characteristics and to become something entirely new.
v. Most indentured workers stayed on after their contracts ended, or returned to their new homes after a short spell in India.

OR

The poor peasants and artisans in the countryside began to work for the merchants from the towns because of the following reasons:
i. Open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. ii. Tiny plots of land did not provide enough for the family.
iii. By working for merchants, peasants could remain in the countryside and cultivate their land.
iv. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their income from cultivation.
v. The family labour resources could be fully used.

OR

Various forms of entertainment came up in the nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people, like:
i. The wealthy Londoners went to the annual London Season where the elite groups enjoyed several cultural events such as the opera, classical musical performances and theatre etc.
ii. Working classes too had their own means of entertainment. They used to meet in pubs and enjoy a drink, exchange news and discuss political events.

iii. In the nineteenth century, the establishment of libraries, museums and art galleries provided entertainment to the common people.
iv. Later on, music halls and cinema houses became a source of mass entrainment.

v. For the industrial workers, spending holidays by the sea-shore and enjoying both the sun and the bracing winds also proved a great source of entrainment and leisure.
20. China remained a major producers of printing material for a long time as

i. Merchants used print in their everyday life as they collected trade information.

ii. Text books for the civil services examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state.
iii. The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, romantic plays.

iv. Rich women began to read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
v. Wives of scholar and officials published their work and courtesans wrote about their lives.

OR

Bhartendu Harishchandra: He is called the pioneer of modern Hindi literature encourages many members of his circle of poets and writers to recreate and translate novels from other languages.
Srinivas Das: His novel published in 1882 was titled Pariksha Guru. He reflected the inner and outer world of the newly emerging middle class. It cautioned young men of
well-to-do families against the dangerous influence of bad company and consequent loose morals.
Devaki Nandan Khatri: The writings of Devaki Nandan Khatri created a novel-reading public in Hindi. His best seller Chandrakanta – a romance withh dazzling elements of fantasy – is believed to have contributed immensely in popularising the Hndi language and the Nagari script among the educated classes of those times. Although it was apparently written purely for the pleasure of reading, this novel also gives some interesting insights into the fears and desires of its reading public.
Premchand: It was with the writings of Premchand that the Hindi novel achieved excellence. He began writing in Urdu then shifted to Hindi, remaining an immensely influential writer in both languages. He drew on the traditional art of kissa-goi. sewasadan deals mainely with the poor condition of women in society, issues like child

marriage and dowry. His novel Sewasadan lifted the Hindi novel from the realm of fantasy, moralising and simple enertainment to a serious reflection on the lives of ordinary people and social issues.
21. The different stages in manufacturing of steel are as follows:

i. Iron Ore: Transport of raw material to plant.

ii. Blast Furnace: Iron ore is then melted. Lime stone is fluxing material which is added.

Slag is removed. Coke is burnt to heat the ore.

iii. Pig Iron: Molten materials poured into moulds called pigs. iv. Shaping Metal: Rolling, pressing, casting and forging.
v. Steel making: Pig iron is further purified by melting and oxidizing the impurities.

Manganese, nickel, chromium are added.

22. Conservation of minerals is necessary because:

i. The total volume of workable mineral deposits in an insignificant fraction i.e. one per cent of the earth’s crust.
ii. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that required millions of years to be created and concentrated.
iii. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption.
iv. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable.

v. Mining of minerals causes great threat to the environment and health of the human beings.
Hence, it is needed to conserve the minerals and use them in a judicious way.

OR

Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas

Commission in its off- shore operations, to the north-eastern states.

Because of the following reasons the air transport is preferred in the North-Eastern states of India:

i. These states mostly lies in inaccessible hilly areas and have difficult terrains. ii. Dense forests are found in this region.
iii. Big rivers and dissected relief are found in this area.

iv. There is heavy rainfall and frequent floods in these areas.

Due to the above reasons it is very difficult to construct roads and lay railway lines in

these areas.

23. The features of the third tier of rural government are:

A. Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayat Raj. Each Village or group of villages in some state has a Gram Panchayat.
B. This is a council consisting of several ward members called Panchs and a president called Sarpanch. They are directly elected by the adult population living in the ward or village.
C. The Panchyats works under the overall supervision of the Gram Sabha. All the voters of the village are the members of Gram Sabha.
D. The local government structure goes right up to the district level. A few Gram panchayat are grouped together to form Sanchayat Samiti or Block. The members of all the Block are elected by the panchayat members of the area.
E. All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila

Parishad.

24. A. RTI is a source to get the information about the working of government in India. The Right to information is a good example of a law that empowers the people to find out what is happening in government and thereby raise their voices if anything unfair happened.
B. This act enabled people to know about every detail of any programs from the levels of planning to implementations. By this, they can know lapses, misappropriation etc. of any officials and file a complaint and corruption and impose strict penalties.
C. This law helps to know who has taken the decision, was the decision taken as per the established norms and procedures. So the executive has to think twice before taking any biased decisions.
D. Right to Information Act is to empower the citizens, promote transparency and accountability in the working of the Government, contain corruption, and make our democracy work for the people in real sense.It goes without saying that an informed citizen is better equipped to keep necessary vigil on the instruments of governance and make the government more accountable to the governed.
E. The Act is a big step towards making the citizens informed about the activities of the

Government.

OR

A. Communalism involves religious prejudice, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
B. A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community.
C. Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. In electoral politics, this often involves a special appeal to the interests or emotions of votes of one religion in preference to others.
D. Sometimes communalism in India takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre.
E. Communal prejudice and propaganda need to be countered in everyday life and religion based mobilization need to be counted in the area of politics.
25. Sushila has spent many years as a worker in garment export industry in Delhi. She was employed as a ‘permanent worker’ entitled to health insurance, provident fund, over time at durable rate.
a. In 1990 her factory was closed due to the introduction of new economy policy which was introduced by the Indian Government. She becomes unemployed.
b. After searching a job for six months, she finally got a job 30 km away from her home. c. Even working in this factory for several years, she was a temporary worker and
earned less than half of what she was earning earlier.

d. She left her house every morning, seven days a week at 7:30 a.m. and returns at 10 p.m. A day off from work means no wage.
e. Sushila no longer got the protection and benefits she used to get earlier.

OR

The factors which facilitate Globalisation are:

a. Rapid improvement in Technology which has stimulated the process of Globalization.. b. Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment policies.
c. Pressure from international organizations like WTO and World Bank. d. Improvement in transportation and communication facilities.
e. Dependence of Developing countries upon Developed Countries

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26.

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