CLASS 10 CBSE SOCIAL STUDIES


 


NATIONALISM IN INDIA

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ by 1921? Explain the main features of the ‘Swaraj

Flag’. Answer:

By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj Flag. The main features of this flag were as follows.

  • It was a tricolour (saffron, green and white).
  • It had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.

 

  1. ‘The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.’ Support the statement with examples.

Answer:

The Civil Disobedience Movement differed from the Non-Cooperation Movement in the

following ways.

 

  1. What type of flag was designed during the Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.

Answer:

  • During the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was

designed.Nationalism in India 39

  • It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India.
  • It also had a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.

 

  1. ‘The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj.’ Support the statement with arguments.

Answer:

The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion

of Swaraj. This statement can be supported by the following arguments.

  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant right to move freely in and out of the

confined space in which they were enclosed, and to retain a link with the native village.

  • When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement thousands of workers left the plantations

and headed home.

  • They believed that Gandhi Raj meant that they would be given land in their own villages.

However, due to steamer and railway strike, thousands were stranded on the way. .

 

  1. Why did different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain.

Answer:

Different social groups joined the Civil Disobedience Movement. Three of them are listed below.

 

  • Rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh – joined the movement because, being producers of commercial crops, they were hard-hit by depression and falling prices. For them, Swaraj meant struggle against high revenues.
  • Poor peasants joined the struggle because they found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted

the unpaid rent to be remitted.

  • Rich business classes were against colonial policies which restricted trade. They joined the

movement because they wanted protection against import of foreign goods. They thought that

Swaraj would cancel colonial restrictions and trade would flourish without constraints.

 

  1. “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyze the reasons.

Answer:

  • Congress wanted to include the demands of the masses as a whole and not a particular group or class.
  • If the demand of the workers were included, then industrialists would get offended. The industrialists were supporting the Congress financially. The Congress did not want to alienate

the industrialists and create anti-imperialist feelings.

  • A big portion of the Congress membership and funding came from industrialists and small

businessmen.

 

  1. Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities? Explain.

Answer:

The Non-Cooperation Movement slowed down in the cities for various reasons.

  • Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could

not afford to buy it. So people could not boycott mill cloth for very long.

  • Similarly boycotting British institutions also posed a problem as there were no alternative

national institutions to fulfil the educational needs.

  • The students and teachers trickled to government schools. The lawyers joined government

courts.

With all these, the enthusiasm of people in the cities lost its force.

 

  1. Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in

February 1922? Explain the reasons. Answer:

Gandhiji withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922 because of the following reasons.

  • Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent at many places and the satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for the mass struggle.
  • Within the Congress some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in the elections to the provincial councils set up after by the Government of India

Act 1919.

  • The final blow however came after the violent incident in Chauri Chaura in 1922 when a

violent mob burnt a police station killing many policemen. Immediately after that, Gandhiji called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.

 

  1. Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact’.

Answer:

At the second Round Table conference, Dr BR Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for

dalits. When the British conceded Dr Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji, who was opposed to this, went on a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position by signing a pact in 1932, known as the Poona Pact. The Poona Pact gave the depressed classes

 

reserved seats in the provincial and legislative councils but they were to be voted by general electorate.

 

  1. How did Salt March become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain.

Answer:

Salt became an effective tool of resistance against colonialism because of the following reasons:

  • Gandhiji found in salt a powerful bond that would unite the nations as it – was consumed by all rich and poor alike.
  • Gandhiji’s letter to Viceroy Irwin stated eleven demands. Most of them were of general interest but the most stirring was to abolish the salt tax imposed by the colonial government.
  • Irwin’s unwillingness to negotiate forced Gandhiji to start his salt March which was joined by thousands. It developed the feeling of nationalism.
  • People in different parts of the country broke salt law and manufactured salt and demonstrated infront of government salt factories.
  • People unitedly followed Gandhiji’s words. They refused to pay taxes, revenues, picketed liquor shops, boycotted foreign clothes, resigned from government jobs violated forest laws.

(any three)

 

  1. Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non- Cooperation Movement.

Answer:

Major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh were:

  • The landlords and talukdars of Awadh demanded exorbitantly high land rent and a number of other cesses from the peasants.
  • The peasants were compelled to do beggar, that is, they had to work at landlord’s farm without payment.
  • As tenants, the peasants had no security of tenure and were often evicted from their land, they could not acquire any right over the leased land.

 

  1. How could non-cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion.

Answer:

Non-cooperation became a movement in the following ways.

  • The idea of non-cooperation was first introduced by Gandhiji in his book Hind Swaraj, where he declared that since the British had established their rule in India with the cooperation of the Indians, it would collapse only when the cooperation was withdrawn.
  • Initially non-cooperation was to start in stages with the surrender of British honours and titles,

boycott of British offices, institutions and foreign goods followed by civil disobedience campaign. Finally at Nagpur session of Congress in 1920, the programme of Non-Cooperation was adopted.

  • In case the government used repressive methods, a full scale Civil Disobedience campaign

would then be launched.

  • At the same time Gandhiji and Shaukat Ali began touring and mobilising support for the

movement. (any three)

 

  1. How did the industrialists relate to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Analyse their role.

Answer:

  • During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists made huge profits and emerged as a powerful section. They opposed colonial policies that restricted business

activities because they wanted to expand their business.

  • They formed Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the

Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.

  • They supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was launched and attacked colonial

control over the Indian economy.

 

  • They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods. Most businessmen came to see swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints
  • Eminent businessmen like Purshotamdas, Thakurdas and GD Birla also came in support of the

Civil Disobedience Movement. (any three)

 

  1. How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Answer:

One of the most important features of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women. They participated in the movement in the following ways.

  • During Gandhiji’s salt satyagraha, thousands of women came out of their homes and engaged themselves in various activities.
  • They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed shops selling foreign goods, liquor, etc.
  • Many of them were arrested and went to jail.
  •  In urban areas, women from high-caste families whereas in rural areas women from the rich

peasant households, inspired by Gandhiji’s call, regarded service to the nation as a sacred duty. (any three)

 

  1. Simon Commission was greeted with slogan ‘Go Back Simon’ at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments

Answer:

  • Simon Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. The Commission is not have a single Indian member. They were all British.

According to Indians, the commission did not hold any hopes for further constitutional reforms.

  • Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted with the slogan ‘Go Back Simon’

and black flags.

  • All parties including the Congress and Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.

 

  1. Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhiji.

Answer:

  • Satyagraha emphasized on the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
  • It was a novel method of protesting through mass agitation, without the use of force, the

oppressor could be persuaded to see the truth and it will ultimately triumph.

  • It suggested that in a struggle against injustice, if the cause is right, there was no need for

aggression or physical force. Victory could be won by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.

  1. Describe any three suppressive measures taken by the British administration to clamp down on nationalists.

Answer:

Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience movement against the Rowlatt Act which

would start with a hartal on 6 April. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, the British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists.

  • Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar.
  • Gandhiji was barred from entering Delhi.
  • On 10 April, the police in Amritsar opened fire upon a peaceful procession which led to widespread attack on banks, post offices and railway stations. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

 

  1. Describe the main features of the ‘Salt March’.

Answer:

The main features of the ‘Salt March’ were:

 

  • Gandhiji started the historic Dandi March (Salt March) from Sabarmati Ashram, (Ahmedabad) accompanied by 78 trusted volunteers.
  • The distance from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a coastal town on the coast of Gujarat was 240 miles.
  • The volunteers walked for 24 days, 10 miles a days.
  • Thousands of people came to hear Gandhiji. The explained the meaning of Swaraj to them.
  • On 6th April, he reached Dandi, violated the salt law and manufactured salt by boiling sea water. (any three)

 

  1. How was Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples.

Answer:

The Rowlatt Act was opposed by Indians in the following ways:

  • A non-violent civil disobedience against the unjust law began.
  • There were hartals and rallies organised in the whole of the country.
  • Workers in the railway workshops went on strike.
  • Shops were closed down in protest. (any three explanation)

 

  1. ‘Some of the Muslim political organizations in India, were lukewarm in their response to

Civil Disobedience Movement’. Examine the statement. Answer:

When Gandhiji called the Civil Disobedience Movement, Muslims were lukewarm in their response due to

  • The disappointment with Non-Cooperation Movement and how it ended without any concrete outcome.
  • The Congress had become visibly associated with the Hindu nationalist groups like the Hindu

Mahasabha, making large sections of Muslims feel alienated.

  • The relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened as each community began organising religious processions.
  • In 1927 the Congress and Muslim League tried to negotiate a compromise, but some important differences remained unsolved.
  • Muslim leaders were concerned about the minority status of Muslims in India. Negotiations over the question of representation continued but all hopes of resolving the issue at the All

Party Conference disappeared, when Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts at compromise. So when Civil Disobedience began, there was an atmosphere of distrust and

suspicion among the communities and Muslim response was lukewarm. (any three)

 

  1. ‘Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.’ Justify the statement.

Answer:

The three attributes of a nation, according to Renan are:

  • A nation is formed when there is a long past of sacrifices and devotion.
  • A national ideas comes into existence when there is a heroic past, glory and great men. It is

the foundation of nation building.

  • The people should have the will to work together for a common goal. All these factors give

rise to nationalism because people feel they are part of a same nation.

 

  1. Explain any three measures taken by the British administration to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act.

Answer:

Following were the measures taken by the British administration to repress the movement started

against the Rowlatt Act:

  • Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British decided to clamp down on nationalists.
  • Local leaders were arrested and Gandhiji was baned from entering Delhi.

 

  • There were firing on peaceful procession.
  • Seeing the situation out of control, Martial law was imposed, (any three)

 

  1. Which were the two types of demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31 January 1930? Why was the abolition of ‘salt tax’ most stirring demand? Explain. Answer:

On 31 January 1930, Gandhiji wrote a letter to Lord Irwin, stating eleven demands. Some of the demands were of general nature, others were more specific demands from industrialists to

peasants. They were wide ranging demands, so that all classes could identify with them and they could be brought under the common campaign. The most stirring demand was to abolish salt tax.

Salt is item of food, consumed by all sections of the society. It is one of the most essential food item. The tax on salt and government monopoly over its production, showed the most oppressive

face of British rule.

 

  1. Explain the effects of ‘worldwide economic depression’ on India, towards late 1920s.

Answer:

The effects of worldwide economic depression were:

  • There was a fall in agricultural prices from 1926 and it collapsed after 1930.
  • As the demand for agricultural goods fall and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvest and pay the revenue.
  • In the countryside, rich peasant communities were the producers of commercial crops. They were hard hit by trade depression and falling prices. By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil.

 

  1. How did colonial government react as the Civil Disobedience Movement spread in the country? Explain any three points.

Answer:

The colonial government reacted to the spread of Civil Disobedience Movement in the following ways:

  • Prominent Congress leaders such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Gandhiji began to be arrested.
  • The government used the policy of brutal repression to clamp down the demonstrators.
  • Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and lakhs of people were arrested.

 

  1. How was history re-interpreted in creating a feeling of nationalism? Explain with examples.

Answer:

By the end of the 19th century, many Indian felt that people should take pride in their glorious

past and started re-interpreting history.

  • The British saw Indians as backward and primitive people incapable of governing themselves.

The Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements.

  • In India, during ancient times there was an all round development in mathematics and science,

in art and architecture, religion and philosophy, culture and law. Trade with other countries flourished during ancient times.

  • The glorious time was followed by period of decline when India was colonised.

 

  1. How did the peasants who gathered around Nehru near Rae Bareli behave when he addressed them? Explain what Nehru meant when he said, “I needed the lesson more than they.”

Answer:

The peasants gathered around Nehru were calm and peaceful to hear him address them. Nehru meant to say that inspite of brutal and displeased behavior of police, the peasants remained

peaceful. On the other hand he had forgotten nonviolence totally at that moment and he was very agitated and disturbed. The peasants taught him a lesson that he was supposed to have being their

leader.

 

  1. “A Satyagrahi wins the battle through non-violence.” Explain with examples.

Answer: A Satyagrahi wins the battle through non-violence. This statement emphasizes the

power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause is true, if the struggle is against injustice, then physical force is not necessary to fight against the oppressor. Without being aggressive a satyagrahi could win the battle. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressors instead of forcing them to accept truth through the use of violence.

 

  1. Who was the President of the Congress when the decision was taken to celebrate 26 January

1930 as Independence Day? Why must India sever the British connection and attain Purna

Swaraj? Explain briefly.

Answer: Jawaharlal Nehru was the President of the Congress when the decision was taken to celebrate 26 January 1930 as Independence Day. India must sever the British connection because

the British deprived Indians of their rights and oppressed and exploited them and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually to the fullest.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt

Act of 1919? How was it organized?

Answer: Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919 because of the following reasons.

  • In 1919, Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed by the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • Indian members unitedly opposed it.
  • The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
  • The Act deprived the Indians of their civil rights.

It was organised in the following ways:

  • Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
  • It started with hartal on 6th April 1919.
  • Rallies were organised in various cities in India.
  • Workers in the railway work shop went on strike.
  • Shops were closed down in protest. (any five explanation)

 

  1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation?

Explain.

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi found in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

  • On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to the Viceroy Irwin, stating eleven demands. The most

important demand was to abolish the salt tax.

  • Salt is consumed by all sections of the society, by the rich and the poor alike.
  • It is one of the most essential items of food.
  • Mahatma Gandhi declared that tax on salt and government monopoly

over its production was the most oppressive step taken by the British government.

  • Mahatma Gandhi choose salt because all sections of the society could identify with it and

everyone could be brought into a united struggle.

 

  1. How did variety of cultural processes play an important role in making nationalismin India.

Explain with examples.

Answer:

Variety of cultural processes played an important role in making of nationalism , in India in the

following ways:

  • The sense of collective belonging inculcated the spirit of nationalism among the people.

History and fiction, folklore and songs and popular prints and symbols played an important part in the making of nationalism.

 

  • Bharat mata as identity of the nation: In the twentieth century, various images of Bharat mata, came to light. It represented India. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who had written Vande mataram as a hymn dedicated to the motherland, created the first image of Bharat mata. Abanindranath Tagore portrayed Bharat mata, as a calm, composed and spiritual figure. It was influenced by the Swadeshi movement.
  • Folklore to restore a sense of pride: Rabindranath Tagore revived folk songs, folk tales,

hymns, legends and stories. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a collection of Tamil folktales the Folklore of southern India.

  • Flags as identity of the Nation: During the Swadeshi Movement flags were carried to create a sense of national belonging. Carrying the flag and holding it aloft during marches became a

symbol of defiance.

  • Reinterpretation of History: Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through

reinterpretation of history. Many Indians wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times, when art and architecture, mathematics and science flourished. They urged the readers to take pride in their glorious past.

 

  1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement because of the

following reasons.

  • The British got worried by the developments of Civil Disobedience Movement and started the

arrest of various top Congress leaders.

  • This led to violent clashes in many parts of the country.
  • When Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested from Peshawar, angry crowd demonstrated in the streets facing armoured cars and police firing many were killed.
  • The arrest of Gandhiji led to the attacks on police force, municipal buildings and law courts by industrial workers in Sholapur.
  • Colonial government got frightened and responded with the policy of brutal repression.
  • At many places, Satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about one

lakh people were arrested. It was under these circumstances, Gandhiji called off the Civil

Disobedience Movement. (any five)

 

  1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.

Answer: Gandhiji relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension because

of the following reasons.

  • The negotiations at the second Round Table conference in London ended in a failure.
  • Back in India, the government had again begun the cycle of repression.
  • Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were in jail.
  • Congress was declared an illegal organisation.
  • A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. For

over a year, the movement continued, but by 1934, it lost its momentum.

 

  1. How did Civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country?

Explain with examples.

Answer: The different social groups which participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement were:

  • In the countryside, the rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar

Pradesh took active part in the movement. They were hard hit by trade depression and falling

prices and were unable to pay the governments revenue demand. For them Swaraj meant struggle against high revenue.

  • As depression continued poor peasantry found it difficult to pay the rent. They joined a variety of radical movements often led by socialists and communists.

 

  • Indian merchants and industrialists resented colonial policies which restricted trade. They were against imports of foreign goods. When the civil disobedience movement was first launched, they gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported cloth. To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  • Some workers participated in the movement with their selective approach adopted from

Gandhian ideas to protest against low wages and poor working conditions. There were strikes by railway workers and dockyard workers. Thousands of workers in Chotanagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.

  • Women joined the Civil Disobedience Movement in large number. They participated in

protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

 

  1. How did the ‘First World War’ create new economic and political situations in India?

Explain with examples.

Answer: The First World War created a new economic and political situation and posed the following problems in India.

  • It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by increasing taxes on

Indians.

  • Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
  • Continuous price rise caused extreme hardship to the common people.
  • Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers by forced recruitment in rural areas which caused widespread anger. All this was aggravated by failure of crop and famine.
  • Between 1918 and 1921 crops failed, which further aggravated the anger.
  • Shortage of essential commodities was the natural outcome of war as industries were geared

to produce goods to fulfill war needs. (any five)

 

  1. How had Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside? Explain.

Answer: Non-Cooperation Movement began in December 1920. It spread to the countryside in

the following ways.

  • The movement started with the participation of middle-class in the cities. Thousands of

students left the government-controlled schools and colleges, teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their practice. It was to be a nonviolent movement.

  • In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. Here, the movement was against talukdars, who charged high rents and peasants had to do beggar.
  • The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue and abolition of beggar. By the end of

1920, Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and others had formed Oudh Kisan Sabha. So

after the beginning of the Non- Cooperation. Movement, Congress wanted to integrate the

Awadh peasants struggle into a wider struggle.

  • Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Gandhiji and idea of swaraj in their own way. In Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement was organised against colonial oppression under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was inspired by the Non- Cooperation Movement.
  • The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.
  • The movement also spread among the plantation workers in Assam. They were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. (any five)

 

  1. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front.

Answer:

  • The Non-Cooperation Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.

Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, the teachers resigned

and the lawyers gave up their lucrative practices.

 

  • The council elections were boycotted in most provinces. Shops selling foreign goods were picketed and foreign goods boycotted.

The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were extensive.

  • Boycotting of foreign goods, liquor and clothes hit the colonial economy.

Value of foreign goods dropped. The import of foreign cloth dropped significantly between

1921 and 1922.

  • At many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
  • As the movement spread, people began to discard imported clothes and started to wear khadi and other homemade clothes. This promoted Indian textile mills and the production of

handloom went up

 

  1. Describe the incident and impact of the Jallianwalla Bagh.

Answer:

On 13 April, a crowd of villagers gathered in an enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh near

Amritsar. These people came there to attend a fair and were unaware of the current political

situation or about the martial law imposed by the military governor General Dyer. Dyer entered the ground, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the innocent crowd, killing hundreds. This incident is referred to as the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre. General Dyer declared that his main aim was to produce a moral effect and to create a feeling of terror and awe in the mind of the satyagrahis. This incident proved to be a turning point in the Indian national movement. As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh massacre spread, crowds took to streets in many towns in North India. There were strikes and clashes with police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression. Innocent people were humiliated and terrorised. People were flogged and villages were burnt for no reason. The national leaders were shocked at this inhumane treatment with fellow Indians and pledged to protest. Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements were started after a few months. The main aim of these movements was to protest against Jallianwalla Bagh incident and demand swaraj.

 

  1. Describe the developments which led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer: The developments that led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movements were as

follows.

  • In 1916, Gandhiji travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire peasants to struggle against the

oppressive plantation system.

  • In 1917, he organised satyagraha to support the peasants of Kheda in Gujarat.
  • In 1918, he organised satyagraha for cotton mill workers in Ahmedabad.
  • In 1919, nationwide satyagraha was launched against Rowlatt Act.
  • Passing of the Rowlatt Act leading to unrest among Indians and arrest of prominent leaders made Gandhiji launch the Non-Cooperation Movement.

 

  1. Describe the significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the freedom Struggle of

India.

Answer: The Civil Disobedience Movement was unique and significant in many ways.

  • Unlike the Non-Cooperation Movement, the satyagrahis in the movement broke various colonial laws.
  • This was a more successful and widespread mass movement. Thousands of people in different parts of the country broke salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of

government offices and factories.

  • The peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. Officials in villages resigned and

forest people violated forest laws.

 

  • In this movement, the satyagrahis displayed immense courage and sincerity. Despite the oppression of colonial government, they did not resort to violence and bravely courted arrests. All Congress leaders were arrested but this could not break the morale of the people.
  • Another significant feature of the movement was the increased participation of women.

Thousands of women came out of their comfortable life at home to participate in the mass movement. They demonstrated courage and determination, broke salt laws and manufactured salt, picketed shops selling foreign goods and organised various other activities. In the Civil Disobedience Movement, the business and industrial class also supported the national leaders by financial assistance and participated in Khadi movement.

 

  1. How could non-cooperation become a movement? Explain with examples.

Answer: Most of the movements are issue-specific movements that seek to achieve a single

objective within a limited time frame. The main issue was to support Khilafat, as well as swaraj. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should start in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles, boycott of civil services, army, police courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods. The Non-cooperation Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. The movement started with middle class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left schools and colleges, lawyers gave up their practice. Council elections were boycotted in most provinces. Non- Cooperation had all the characteristics of a movement.

  • It had a specific issue i.e. it was started in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.
  • It could not achieve its direct objective. However, it was very successful on the economic front. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921-1922 and its value dropped from 102 crore to 57 crore.
  • It was short lived. Gandhiji called a halt to the Non-Cooperation Movement after the Chauri-

Chaura incident when police station was set on fire in 1922.

  • Non-Cooperation also had a clear cut leadership. It was organised under the leadership of

Gandhiji.

 

  1. How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation? Explain with examples.

Answer:

  • In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as

indentured labourer. Here, the movement was against talukdars and landlords who demanded very high rents, and cesses from the peasants. They had to perform beggar in landlords farms. They had no right over leased land. When the Non-Cooperation Movement started, the houses of talukdars and landlords were looted. In many place local leaders told the peasants that Gandhiji had said no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the peasants.

  • Tribal peasants of Andhra Pradesh interpreted the message of Gandhiji in a different way.

They were led by Alluri Sitaram Raju. The government had closed large forest areas,

preventing the tribals from entering forest to gaze their cattle. They were dependent on forests for food, fuel and trails. The militant movement had begun to resist repressive measures of the colonisers. The tribals became violent and attacked police stations.

  • For plantation workers in Assam, Swaraj had a very different notion. For them freedom meant

to move in and out of the confined place. The workers believed that Gandhi raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their village. So, they defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.

 

  1. Explain the impact of Jallianwallah Bagh incident on the people.

Answer:

  • As the news of the Jallianwallah Bagh spread, the crowds took to streets in many towns of

North India.

  • There were strikes, clashes with the police and attack on government buildings.

 

  • The government reciprocated with brutal repression to terrorise the people.
  • Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do salaam to

all officers.

  • People were flogged and villages around Gujranwala in Punjab (now in Pakistan) were

bombed.

 

  1. Explain the effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front.

Answer: The effects of the Non-cooperation Movement on the economic front were

  • The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922 and its value dropped from 102 crores to 57 crores.
  • Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
  • In many places traders and merchants refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign

goods.

  • As the boycott movement spread people refused to wear imported clothes and wore only

Indian ones.

  • Production of Indian textiles and handlooms went up.

 

  1. How did peasants of Awadh used different methods to achieve their goal? Explain.

Answer:

The peasants of Awadh were led by Baba Ramchandra. The following methods were used to

achieve their goals:

  • They raised their demand for reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and security of land

tenure. They took to social boycott of oppressive landlords.

  • In many places, the panchayats organised nai-dhobi bands to deprive the landlords of basic

services of barber and washermen.

  • Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up with more than 300 branches in the villages around Awadh.

 

  1. ‘Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement’. Examine the statement.

Answer:

  • Dalit participation was limited in Civil Disobedience Movement because the Congress did not want to offend to ‘Sanatanis’ the upper caste Hindus by including the Dalits.
  • The dalits believed that political empowerment would solve all the problems , of their social disabilities.
  • Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to their problems. They organised themselves and demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and separate

electorate that would choose dalit members for councils.

  • Ambedkar had clashed with Gandhiji at Second Round Table Conference for demanding

separate electorate for dalits. Gandhiji viewed this as slowing down the process of unity and their integration into society.

  • The dalits continued to be apprehensive of Congress led movements because it was dominated by conservative high class Hindus.So the dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience

Movement was limited, particularly in Maharashtra and Nagpur region where their organisation was strong.

 

  1. Why did Gandhiji start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain any four features of

Civil Disobedience Movement.

Answer: Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement. On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter

to Viceroy Irwin, stating eleven demands. The most stirring demand was to abolish salt tax. Salt is the commodity consumed by all, both rich and poor. It is one of the most essential item of food. The tax on salt and its monopoly over production revealed the oppressive face of British government. Mahatma Gandhi started his historic march from Sabarmati Ashram. On 6 April, he reached Dandi and violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This was the

 

beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Main features of the Civil Disobedience

Movement are:

  • First successful mass movement.
  • People from all sections participated in the Movement.
  • Women for the first time left their homes and joined the movement.
  • For the first time the movement was launched with the goal of Purna Swaraj.

 

  1. How did the people and the colonial government react to the Civil Disobedience Movement?

Explain.

Answer: The people reacted differently to the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  • Thousands of people broke colonial laws and salt laws, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government owned salt factories.
  • Foreign cloth was boycotted, liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay taxes, revenue and chowkidari taxes. In many places people violated forest laws, going into reserved

forests to collect wood and graze cattle.

  • In Peshwar, the angry crowd demonstrated in streets, facing armoured cars and police firing.
  • The colonial government reacted ruthlessly. Worked by the popularity of the movement, the government arrested eminent leaders. It led to violent clashes.
  • Peaceful satyagrahis were arrested, people were beaten and 1,00,000 were arrested. Congress was declared illegal. Gandhiji signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact and agreed to attend the Second

Round Table Conference in London.

 

  1. Explain the reactions of the Indian people against the Rowlatt Act passed through the

Imperial Legislative Council in 1919.

Answer: The Rowlatt Act gave enormous powers to the government to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

  • Indians reacted against this unreasonable act, Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against the unjust law and decided to start a hartal on 6th April 1919.
  • Rallies were organised in various cities.
  • People organised hartals all over the country in protest of the Rowlatt Act and the shops were

shut down.

  • Workers went on strike in railway workshops.

 

  1. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Explain his role in inspiring the rebels with Gandhiji’s ideas.

Answer: Alluri Sitaram Raju led the peasant rebellion in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh. He

became popular because he claimed that he had special powers of astrological predictions and the power to heal people. He could survive bullet shots. In Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in early 1920s. The main aim of the movement was to protest against colonial laws. The government had closed forest areas for grazing of cattle and collection of firewood or fruits. Government compelled them to work free for road building (begar).The people revolted under Alluri Sitaram Raju. He spoke about the greatness of Gandhiji and he was inspired by Non-Cooperation Movement. The people were persuaded to wear Khadi and give up drinking alcohol. He believed India will become independent by force and not by non-violence. The

Gudem rebels attacked police stations and attempted to kill British officials.

 

  1. Describe the actions taken by the British administration against the nationalists who opposed the Act.

Answer: The following steps were taken by British administration against the nationalists who opposed the Act.

  • The British administrators decided to clamp down upon the nationalists because they feared that lines of communication such as railways and telegraphs would be disrupted. They

adopted the following methods.

 

  • Local leaders were picked from Amritsar.
  • Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
  • On 10 April police fired upon peaceful, procession which led to widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railways stations.
  • Martial law was imposed. General Dyer took charge in Amritsar.

 

  1. Explain the role played by tribal peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh during the

Non Cooperation Movement.

Answer: The tribal peasants of Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh understood the message of

Gandhiji and idea of Swaraj in a different way.In Gudem Hills, as in other parts, the tribal

peasants were prevented from entering the forest areas, to graze their cattle or to collect fuelwood and fruits. They were also forced to do beggar. A militant guerrilla movement had spread in the

1920s.The tribal peasants were deprived of their livelihood and their traditional rights were denied. The person who led them was Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was inspired by Gandhiji,

persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking. He also believed India will become free with the use of force and not non-violence. People attacked police stations, attempted to kill

British officials and carried out guerrilla warfare.

 

  1. Examine the role of industrial working class in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Answer:

  • When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, the industrial working class did not participate in large number except in the Nagpur region.
  • As the industrialists gave financial assistance and came closer to the Congress, . the workers did not participate in large number.
  • Some workers did participate in the movement. They boycotted foreign goods. They asked for higher wages and better working conditions. They participated in protest rallies and boycott

campaigns in Chotanagpur region.

  • Gandhiji did not support the demands of industrial workers as it would have alienated the

business classes.

  • Gandhiji was reluctant to support the industrial working class as it would have divided the

anti-imperialist forces.

 

  1. How did Gandhiji try to integrate the Depressed Classes into society? Explain any three points.

Answer: Gandhiji tried to integrate the Depressed Classes into society in the following ways:

  • He organised Satyagraha to secure entry into temples for them and access to public wells,

tanks, roads and schools.

  • He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the untouchables.
  • He persuaded the upper classes to change their attitude towards the depressed classes and give up untouchability.
  • When the British conceded to demand of Dr BR Ambedkar to have separate electorates for the depressed classes, Gandhiji went on a fast unto death as he believed that a separate electorate

for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.

 

  1. How did BR Ambedkar try to improve the conditions of the Depressed Classes? Explain any three points.

Answer:

BR Ambedkar tried to improve the conditions of the Depressed Classes in the following ways:

  • In 1930, Dr. BR Ambedkar organised the Dalits (the untouchables) into an organisation called the Depressed Classes Association, now known as scheduled caste.
  • His ideas regarding depressed class deferred from that of Mahatma Gandhi. He wanted separate electorates for Dalits.

 

  • Whilst at Round Table Conference in London he demanded separate electorates for Dalits and the British coloniser conceded his demand. This caused Mahatma Gandhi to fast unto the

death because he believed that separate electorate for the Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into the main society.

  • He signed the Poona Pact with Gandhi ji and the Congress giving the opportunities to depress to secure reserved seat for Dalits in the provincial and Central Legislative Council to be voted

in general election.

 

  1. Explain any three causes that led the tribals to revolt in the Gudem Hills of Andhra

Pradesh.

Answer: The tribal peasants of Gudem Hill in Andhra Pradesh fought for swaraj and revolted against the British. The following were the causes that led the tribals to the revolt in the Gudem

Hills of Andhra Pradesh:

  • The colonial government had closed large forest areas preventing the tribals from entering the

forest to graze their cattle and felt that their traditional rights were being taken away.

  • The tribal who were strongly dependent on the forests for food, fruits and fuel were prevented

to carry out these activities affecting their livelihood which enraged them.

  • The government was forcing the peasants of the Gudem Hill’to carry out begar (unpaid work)

for the building of roads.

  • A militant movement had begun to resist the repressive measures of the colonisers.The tribals

here became violent and attacked police station and attempted to kill the British.

 

  1. Explain four points about Gandhiji’s idea of ‘satyagraha’.

Answer:

Gandhiji had carried out successful satyagraha in South Africa against the racist regime.

  • According to him satyagraha was not a passive resistance but it called for intensive activity.
  • It suggested that if the struggle was against injustice, physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor. Non-violence could also win the battle.
  • Only through the power of truth and non-violence, an appeal was made to the conscience of the oppressor.
  • Persuasion, not force, would make the oppressor realise the truth. This dharma of non- violence and truth united people against the oppressor and made them realise the truth.

 

  1. Why did the rich peasants take part in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Give four reasons.

Answer:

Among the different social groups which participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement the rich peasants also had their ideals and perceptions of Swaraj which encouraged them to join the

movement.

  • Rich peasants like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats in Uttar Pradesh who were producers of

commercial crops were hard hit by depression and falling prices.

  • As their cash income reduced, they were unable to pay government revenue.
  • The government refused to reduce revenue.So, the rich peasants became enthusiastic supporter of the Civil Disobedience Movement to free them from the situation.

 

 

 

Map Questions

Ø Some features are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them with the

help of the following information and write their correct names.

  1. The place where the Indian National Congress session was held in 1927.

The place associated with peasants’ Satyagraha

Or

The place where peasants struggled against the indigo plantation system.

 

Or

The place where the ‘Movement of Indigo planters’ was started.

  1. The city associated with the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
  2. The place where cotton mill workers organised Satyagraha in 1918.

Or

Name the place related to the Satyagraha of peasants in Gujarat.

  1. The place related to the calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  2. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.

Or

The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in September 1920.

  1. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1920.
  2. The place where peasants organized a Satyagraha

Or

The place where ‘No Tax Campaign’ was started.

  1. The place where the Civil Disobedience Movement was started.

 

  1. Madras (Now Chennai)
  2. Champaran (Bihar)
  3. Amritsar
  4. Ahmedabad
  5. Chauri-Chaura (UP)
  6. Calcutta (Kolkata)
  7. Nagpur

Answer:

 

  1. Bardoli
  2. Sabarmati Ashram (Gujarat)

 

Ø Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols on the given outline map of India.

1.Champaran-The place, from where the movement of Indigo planters was Started.

2.Bardoli-The place from where ‘No Tax Campaign’ was started.

3.Chauri-Chaura-The place of calling off Non-Cooperation Movement.

4.Amritsar-The place where Jallian wala Bagh incident took place.

5.Kheda-The place where the peasants Satyagraha was held.

6.Madras-The place where, the Indian National Congress Session of 1927 was held.

 

 


 

LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY

 

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [3 MARKS]

 

  1. Explain the importance of railways as the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.

Answer:

Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India in the

following ways.

  • Railways have contributed to the development of multifarious activities like business,

sightseeing, pilgrimage and tourism along with the transportation of goods over long distance.

  • It is an important means of transport for long distance travel with ease.
  • It has binded the economic life of the country that has accelerated the development of agriculture and industry by carrying the raw materials to the industries and distribution of finished goods to the consuming markets.

 

  1. Describe any three features of waterways in India.

Answer:

The three features of waterways are as follows.

  • They are the cheapest means of transport for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
  • They are fuel efficient.
  • They are an eco-friendly mode of transport, however the slowest means of transport.

 

  1. Describe the significance of tourism as a trade in India.

Answer:

Tourism means an activity of visiting places, especially in foreign countries for pleasure.

Tourism is known as a trade because of the following reasons.

  • Foreign tourist’s arrivals have increased over the years. 5.78 million foreign tourists visited

India in 2010. It contributed Rs. 64,889 crores as foreign exchange in the year 2010.

  • More than 15 million people are directly engaged in tourism industry.
  • It helps in the development of Indian handicrafts and other economic activities.
  • Foreign tourist visits India for business tourism, adventure tourism, medical tourism, eco

tourism, heritage tourism, etc.

 

  1. Mention the six mail channels introduced recently to facilitate quick delivery of mails.

Answer:

The following are the six mail channels.

Ø Rajdhani Channel

Ø Metro Channel

Ø Green Channel

Ø Business Channel

Ø Bulk Mail Channel

Ø Periodical Channel

 

  1. Give reasons for which foreign tourists visit India.

Answer:

Foreign tourists visit India due to the following reasons.

  • India has been an excellent place for heritage tourism. It is rich in culture and ethnicity.
  • Many tourists come here for adventure in the mountainous regions of Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, etc.
  • Southern India provides excellent opportunities for medical tourism, which attracts tourists from the world.

 

  1. Why is the distribution of roads not uniform in India? Explain with examples.

Answer:

The distribution of roads is not uniform in India because of the following reasons.

  • India has vast and diverse relief features with high mountains and plateaus which restrict construction of roads in many area.
  • India is a land of rivers with dissected tributaries. It is not possible to lay roads in these areas where the rivers often create havoc during floods.
  • Keeping in view the low volume of passengers and traffic, it is not economical to lay roads in such areas.

 

  1. How does transport play an important role in the economic development of a country?

Explain with examples. Answer:

Efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for fast development because:

  • the movement of goods and services from the supply location to demand locations

necessitates the need for transport. It widens the market for goods.

  • it allows distant and remote areas to be linked with urban and developed , regions.
  • the development and improvement of transport have made delivery of goods faster across long distances and thus reduced cost.
  • immediate relief during war, natural calamity, famine or flood can be easily accessed through efficient means of transport.

 

  1. How are the means of transport and communication complementary to each other? Explain with three examples.

Answer:

Means of transport and communication are complementary to each other in the following ways:

  • Transport and communication provide basic infrastructure for each other to

carry on their process.

  • They create possibilities for investment to upgrade and expand their services.
  • Communication has widened the horizons of trade far and wide.
  • Transport had limited access earlier. With the advancement of science and technology the

world has converted into a large village. Communication has widened the scope of transportation even in the remote areas.

 

  1. ‘The distribution pattern of Indian railway network is influenced by the physiographic factors.’ Examine the statement.

Answer:

The distribution of railway network depends upon physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The following are the conditions responsible for uneven distribution pattern of the railway

network in India.

  • The northern plains have dense network of railways due to extensive level land, agriculturally

and industrially productive region and support high density of population which is favourable for the development of railways. However, the presence of large number of rivers requires the construction of bridges across the rivers which poses some difficulties.

  • In the hilly regions of the north and the peninsular plateau regions, railways are constructed

through narrow gaps, or tunnels.

  • The Himalayas region has less network of railways due to rugged terrain, sparse population

and lack of economic opportunities.

  • In the sandy plains of western Rajasthan, swampy regions of Gujarat, thickly forested regions

of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, construction of railways is difficult and expensive.

 

  • Recently, the development of Konkan railway along the western coast has contributed to the movement of goods and passengers through the passes and gaps along the Western Ghats to link the most economic region of India.

 

  1. Why is air travel preferred in the north-eastern states of India? Explain any three reasons.

Answer:

Air travel is more popular in the north-eastern states of India because of the following reasons.

  • North eastern part of the country is marked with the presence of big rivers where other means

of transport cannot be laid.

  • It is marked with dissected relief that makes it impossible to access the area through other

means of transport other than air.

  • The entire area is covered with dense forest that resists land movement.
  • This area is often hit by frequent floods. Air travel is thus required.
  • It has a long international frontier that requires quick response which is possible only through

air transport.

 

  1. How can you help the Indian Railways to run the trains as per schedule? Explain.

Answer:

We can help the Indian Railways to run the trains as per schedule by:

  • keeping the trains tracks clean, clear and well maintained.
  • avoiding the pulling of chains for unnecessary reasons.
  • avoiding the damage done to the railway property.

 

  1. Describe any five major problems faced by road transport in India

Answer:

Major problems faced by road transport are:

  • In terms of volume of traffic and passengers, the road network is inadequate.
  • About half of the roads are unmetalled and get damaged during the rainy season.
  • The number of National Highways is inadequate and are poorly maintained.
  • The roads are congested in cities and are lacking safety measures.
  • Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.

 

  1. Advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its econoniic prosperity.’ Justify the statement with five arguments

Answer:

Advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic prosperity. The

following points can justify the statement.

  • No country can survive without international trade because resources are space bound.
  • Advancement of international trade of a country leads to its economic prosperity because such a trade provides so many jobs to workers as well as business to traders.
  • It is through international trade that we earn much of our foreign exchange which is required for importing many essential goods.
  • Foreign trade helps in transfer of technology.
  • International trade gives rise to competition. Domestic producers make their production

process efficient to meet the international standards and thus, are able to compete.

 

  1. What are the means of communication? How do they create awareness ahjong the masses and integrate the people? Explain with four examples.

Answer:

Communication refers to conveying of messages and ideas between individuals or to the masses.

The means of mass communication are radio, television, media and films.

They create awareness among the mass and integrated the people in the following ways.

 

  • Every day at regular intervals, we hear or watch the news on the radio and television. News are given on variety of subjects and topics and people come to know what is happening in the society, politics and economy.
  • Newspaper also gives news on variety of subjects like politics, society, financial, sports and

international. The news are given in details (of the day before). They also carry advertisements.

  • India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films, feature films and video short films.
  • Means of communication also integrate the people. If we see about any unforeseen calamity on the television or read about it in the newspaper, the country stands united to help the

victims.

 

  1. How is road transport more advantageous than other means of transport for short distances? Explain with five suitable examples.

Answer:

  • Road transport is economical in transportation of few people and smaller amount of goods. It

reduces cost.

  • Road transport do not need a station or a port (sea port and air port). It can cover short

distances easily and quickly.

  • There are a large variety of vehicles on the roads, carrying one, two or more than sixty

persons. They can negotiate traffic jams.

  • They provide door to door service.
  • Road transport like rickshaws, bicycles, autos and scooters can negotiate the narrow and congested lanes and by-lanes and carry people and goods.

 

  1. Explain the improvements made by the Indian railways in its functioning.

Answer:

Improvements made by Indian railways in its functioning are:

  • Construction of new railway lines and extension of additional routes along certain routes.
  • Electrification of railway network.
  • Introduction of super fast trains like Shatabadi, Rajdhani, etc.
  • Computerised reservation of booking and cancellation of tickets.

 

  1. Explain three reasons for dense railway network in the North Indian plains.

Answer:

North Indian Plains have a dense network of railway because of the following reasons.

  • Vast level land that is topographically suitable for laying railway lines.
  • High population density makes it economical to operate.
  • Rich agricultural resources in the plains require network of railways to sustain economy.

 

  1. “Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.” Support the statement with three arguments.

Answer:

Advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic prosperity. The

following points can justify the statement.

  • No country can survive without international trade because resources are space bound.
  • Advancement of international trade of a country leads to its economic prosperity because such a trade provides so many jobs to workers as well as business to traders.
  • It is through international trade that we earn much of our foreign exchange which is required for importing many essential goods.
  • Foreign trade helps in transfer of technology.
  • International trade gives rise to competition. Domestic producers make their production

process efficient to meet the international standards and thus, are able to compete.

 

  1. Mention any two inland waterways of India. Write three characteristics of each.

Answer:

The two inland waterways of India are:

  • The Brahmaputra River between Sadiya and Dhubri.
  • The West-Coast Canal in Kerala

The characteristics of Brahmaputra River between Sadiya and Dhubri are:

  • The waterway is 891 km long on river Brahmaputra.
  • Long cruise tourist vessels make voyages between Sivsagar near Dibrugarh and Manas wildlife sanctuary near Jogighopa continuously. Thus, making it a commercially beneficial proposition.
  • Border security force deployed on this inland prove to be an important base for defence of the

country.

The characteristics of West-Coast Canal in Kerala are:

  • The stretch is 205 km long of the canals of Kerala. .
  • The waterway provides 24 hours navigation facility in the entire stretch.
  • The backwaters of Kerala prove to be cheap means of transport attracting tourists.

 

  1. How has the distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country been largely influenced by physiographic and economic factors? Explain with examples

Answer:

The distribution of railway network depends upon physiographic, economic and administrative

factors. The following are the conditions responsible for uneven distribution pattern of the railway network in India.

  • The northern plains have dense network of railways due to extensive level land, agriculturally and industrially productive region and support high density of population which is favourable

for the development of railways. However, the presence of large number of rivers requires the construction of bridges across the rivers which poses some difficulties.

  • In the hilly regions of the north and the peninsular plateau regions, railways are constructed through narrow gaps, or tunnels.
  • The Himalayas region has less network of railways due to rugged terrain, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
  • In the sandy plains of western Rajasthan, swampy regions of Gujarat, thickly forested regions of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, construction of railways is difficult and

expensive.

  • Recently, the development of Konkan railway along the western coast has contributed to the

movement of goods and passengers through the passes and gaps along the Western Ghats to link the most economic region of India.

 

  1. Write any four characteristics of Kandla sea port.

Answer:

The following are the characteristics of the Kandla sea port:

  • It is a tidal port.
  • It was the first port developed soon after the Independence of India in Kuchchh.
  • It was developed to ease the volume of trade from Mumbai port after the loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the Partition in 1947.
  • It caters to the convenient handling of imports and exports of granary and industrial belt spreading from states like Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,

Rajasthan and Gujarat.

 

  1. Explain any four merits of pipeline transport in India.

Answer:

The following are the merits of pipeline transport in India:

 

  • Solids (when converted into slurry), liquids and gases can be transported through pipelines.
  • Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
  • Trans-shipment of losses and delays are ruled out.
  • It is economical to transport petroleum, natural gas, ferlilizers to interior places of the country.

 

  1. What is the meaning of road density? Describe any three major problems faced by road transportation in India.

Answer:

Major problems faced by road transport are:

  • In terms of volume of traffic and passengers, the road network is inadequate.
  • About half of the roads are unmetalled and get damaged during the rainy season.
  • The number of National Highways is inadequate and are poorly maintained.
  • The roads are congested in cities and are lacking safety measures.
  • Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.

 

  1. What is the importance of railway transport? Describe any three major problems faced by Indian Railways.

Answer:

The following are the major problems faced by the Indian Railways:

  • Passengers travel without ticket.
  • Thefts and damages of railways property.
  • Unnecessary chain pulling by the passengers cause delays.

 

  1. Describe any four features of Indian tourism as a trade.

Answer:

Following are the features of Indian tourism as a trade:

  • Tourism in India has grown substantially over the last three decades with the bumper increase in foreign tourists.
  • It provides employment and financial support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.
  • India has become a popular destination for heritage, adventure, medical and business tourism.
  •  Indian tourism has achieved the status of maximum foreign exchange

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. How do means of transport and communication play an important role in the economic development of the country? Explain.

Answer:

Dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for the development of local, national and global trade of today because of the following reasons.

  • We use different material and services in our daily life. Some of these are available in our immediate surroundings while other requirements are met by bringing things from other

places. Movement of these goods and services can be over three domains of earth.

  • Today the world has converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast-moving

transport.

  • Transport has been able to achieve this with the help of equally developed communication

system.

  • Therefore transport, communication and trade are complementary to each other.
  • Today, India is well linked with rest of the world despite its vast size diversity, linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.

 

  1. ‘Roadways still have an edge over railways in India.’ Support the statement with arguments.

 

Answer:

Roadways still have an edge over railways in India in the following ways.

  • Roads are cheaper than railways and are easier to construct and maintain.
  • Roads provide door-to-door service, therefore the cost of loading and unloading

is much less.

  • Road transport is used as a feeder to other means of transport, i.e. it is a link between railway

stations, airports and seaports.

  • Roads can traverse more dissected and undulating topography.
  • It can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and can traverse mountains.
  • Roads are economical is transporting few number of people and smaller amount of goods over

short distances.

 

  1. Classify communication services into two categories. Explain main features of each.

Answer:

Communication services can be classified into two categories—personal communication and mass communication.

Main features of personal communication:

  • It is the communication between person to person. In this communication, only personal

messages are exchanged.

  • Personal communication is done through mobile phones, letters, e-mails, post cards, etc.

Main features of mass communication:

  • It is the communication among masses. It provides entertainment as well as awareness about

various national programmes.

  • Mass communication is done through radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books, films,

etc.

 

  1. Define the term tourism. Why is tourism known as a trade? Explain

Answer:

Tourism means an activity of visiting places, especially in foreign countries for pleasure. Tourism is known as a trade because of the following reasons.

  • Foreign tourist’s arrivals have increased over the years. 5.78 million foreign tourists visited

India in 2010. It contributed ? 64,889 crores as foreign exchange in the year 2010.

  • More than 15 million people are directly engaged in tourism industry.
  • It helps in the development of Indian handicrafts and other economic activities.
  • Foreign tourist visits India for business tourism, adventure tourism, medical tourism, eco tourism, heritage tourism, etc.

 

  1. Explain any five major problems faced by road transport in India

Answer:

The major problems faced by road transport in India are as follows.

  • The road network is inadequate when volume of traffic and passengers are taken into consideration.
  • Nearly half of the roads are unmetalled and it limits their usage during the rainy season.
  • Roadways are highly congested in the cities, with frequent traffic jams.
  • Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
  • The national highways are inadequate too.

 

  1. Why is a dense and efficient network of transport and communication a

prerequisite for the development of local, national and global trade of today? Give your opinion.

Answer:

Dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for the

development of local, national and global trade of today because of the following reasons.

 

  • We use different material and services in our daily life. Some of these are available in our immediate surroundings while other requirements are met by bringing things from other places. Movement of these goods and services can be over three domains of earth.
  • Today the world has converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast-moving

transport.

  • Transport has been able to achieve this with the help of equally developed communication

system.

  • Therefore transport, communication and trade are complementary to each other.
  • Today, India is well linked with rest of the world despite its vast size diversity, linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.

 

  1. ‘Road transport and rail transport in India are not competitive but complementary to each other.’ Justify the statement.

Answer:

The statement road transport and rail transport in India are not competitive but complementary to each other can be justified in the following ways.

  • Road transport is more suitable for short distances whereas rail transport is more suitable for long distances.
  • Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances whereas rail transport is more suitable for large number of

people and heavy goods.

  • Road transport is beneficial for perishable goods to be carried by roads in short period of time

whereas non-perishable and bulky are transported by railways for a longer distances.

  • Road transport increases the efficiency of railways.
  • Road transport links the rural areas with railway stations.
  • The deficiency of railways is compensated by road transport.

 

  1. ‘Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its prosperity.’ Support the statement with suitable examples.

Answer:

Advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic prosperity. The following points can justify the statement.

  • No country can survive without international trade because resources are space bound.
  • Advancement of international trade of a country leads to its economic prosperity because

such a trade provides so many jobs to workers as well as business to traders.

  • It is through international trade that we earn much of our foreign exchange which is required

for importing many essential goods.

Foreign trade helps in transfer of technology.

  • International trade gives rise to competition. Domestic producers make their production process efficient to meet the international standards and thus, are able to compete.

 

  1. ‘Indian railways binds the economic life of the country as well as accelerates the development of industry and agriculture.’ Justify the statement.

Answer:

They are principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers. They help in multifarious ways like business, sightseeing, along with transportation of goods over long distances.

  • Economic development of a region depends upon the dense network of rail transport.
  • They link areas of production with that of consumption, agriculture with industry and village

with towns and cities.

  • They help in industrial development by assemblage of raw materials and distribution of

finished goods.

  • They help in regional development.

 

  • Railways help in the development of all the three sectors of the economy— primary, secondary and tertiary.

 

  1. Mention any four merits and any two demerits of air transport

Answer:

Merits of air transport are:

  • Most comfortable
  • Fastest means of transport
  • Covers long stretches of mountains, deserts, thick forests and oceanic stretches with great ease.
  • Helicopters can land and take off from any place.

Demerits of air transport are:

  • Very expensive
  • It is often affected by weather phenomenon like fog and strong currents in upper atmosphere.

 

MAP QUESTIONS

 

Ø On the given map of India locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:

(l) Tuticorin-Major seaport

(ii) Kochi-Major seaport

(iii) Kandla-Major seaport

(iv) Raja Sansi International airport or Amritsar International Airport

(v) New Mangalore-Major seaport

(vi) Paradip-Seaport

(vii) Vishakhapatnam-Major seaport

(viii) Chennai/Madras

 

Ø Some features are marked on the given political map of India, with the help of following information and write their correct lines marked in the maps.

(i) Terminal station of North-South Corridor

(ii) Terminal station of East-West Corridor

(ill) The terminal station of North-South Corridor

(iv) Terminal station of East-West Corridor

(v) Terminal station of NH7

(vi) Terminal station of NH7 (vii) International Airport (viii) Major seaport

(ix) Terminal station of NH7

(x) Terminal station of NH1

 

 

 

 

 

POLITICAL PARTIES

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. How do political parties shape public opinion? Explain with three examples.

Answer:

Political parties shape public opinion in the following ways.

  • They highlight and raise issues.
  • Parties have lakhs of members spread all over the country. Often pressure groups are an

extension of political parties, among different sections of the society. They help in taking up issues and forming public opinion.

  • Sometimes, parties launch movements for solving the problems faced by people. Often the public opinion develops on the same lines that the parties take.

 

  1. Name the national political party which gets inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values. Mention four features of that party.

Answer:

Bharatiya Janata Party gets its inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values. Four features of

Bharatiya Janata Party are as follows.

  • It wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
  • It wants a uniform civil code for all people living in the country, irrespective of religion.
  • It wants a ban on religious conversions.
  • Hindutva or cultural nationalism is an important element in its conception of politics.

 

  1. Name the national political party which espouses secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities. Mention any four features of that party.

Answer:

National Congress Party, formed in 1999, espouses secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities. Four features of this party are as follows:

  • It wants high offices in the government to be confined to natural-born citizens of the country.
  • It stands for social justice, federalism and equity.
  • It is a major party in Maharashtra with a significant presence in Meghalaya, Manipur and

Assam.

  • In Maharashtra, it is a coalition partner in alliance with the Congress.
  • It is a member of the United Progressive Alliance since 2004.

 

  1. Name the national political party which draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of

Sahu Maharaj. Mention any four features of that party. Answer:

The national political party which draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Sahu Maharaj is Bahujan Samaj Party.Four features of this party are as follows.

  • It wants to secure the interest and welfare of the dalits and oppressed classes.
  • It seeks to represent and secure power for the bahujan samaj which includes dalits, adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities.
  • It draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Mahatma Phule, Periyar, Ramaswami

Naicker and Dr Ambedkar.

  • Its main base is in Uttar Pradesh.

 

  1. What is meant by a political party? Describe the three components of a political party.

Answer:

A political party is a political association or a voluntary group of people who come together to contest elections and hold political power in the government. They agree on some policies and

 

programmes. Political parties are necessary for democracy. They provide an important two-way link between the government and the people. They also unite and aggregate like-minded people from diverse backgrounds and religions to form a wide coalition of people and provide unity in diversity.

For the three components of a political party, refer to answer 8.

 

  1. State the conditions laid down by the Election Commission to recognise a state party and a national party.

Answer:

  • A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the legislative

assembly of a state and wins at least two seats is recognised as a state party.

  • A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in lok sabha elections or assembly

elections in four states and wins at least four seats in the lok sabha is recognised as a national party.

 

  1. Name the six national political parties of India in chronological order.

Answer:

The following are the six national political parties of India in chronological order.

  • Indian National Congress (1885) .
  • Communist Party of India (1925)
  • Communist Party of India-Marxist (1964)
  • Bhartiya Janata Party (1980)
  • Bahujan Samaj Party (1984)
  • National Congress Party (1999)

 

  1. Name any three national political parties along with their symbols.

Answer:

  • Indian National Congress—symbol: hand, palm facing the people
  • Bhartiya Janata Party—symbol: a lotus
  • Bahujan Samaj Party—symbol: an elephant

 

  1. Name any six regional political parties of the four southern states of India.

Answer:

  • The four southern states with regional political parties are as follows.
  • Kerala: Indian Federal Democratic Party and Kerala Congress (Mani)
  • Tamil Nadu: All India Anna DMK and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
  • Andhra Pradesh: Telugu Desam Party
  • Karnataka: Janata Dal (Secular)

 

  1. Name the regional political parties predominant in Punjab, Haryana and Uttarakhand respectively with their symbols

Answer:

The regional political parties predominant in:

  • Punjab—Shiromani Akali Dal, symbol: scales
  • Haryana—Indian National Lok Dal, symbol: a pair of spectacles
  • Uttarakhand—Uttarakhand Kranti Dal, symbol: chair

 

  1. Name the regional political parties predominant in Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Orissa, respectively with their symbols.

Answer:

  • The regional political parties predominant in:
  • Jharkhand—Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, symbol: bow and arrow
  • Maharashtra—Shiv Sena, symbol: bow and arrow
  • Orissa—Biju Janata Dal, symbol: conch

 

  1. Name the regional political parties predominant in Sikkim, Nagaland and Manipur, respectively with their symbols.

Answer:

  • The regional political parties predominant in:
  • Sikkim—Sikkim Democratic Front, symbol: an umbrella
  • Nagaland—Nagaland People’s Front, symbol: a cock
  • Manipur—Manipur People’s Party, symbol: a cycle

 

  1. What is a multiparty system? Why has India adopted a multiparty system? Explain

Answer:

A multiparty system is a political system in which several parties contest the election to hold political power. In this system, there is a chance of two or more parties coming to power. This

system also advocates coalition government and alliance politics. India adopted a multiparty system because of the following reasons.

  • India is blessed with tremendous social and geographical diversity. This diversity cannot be easily accommodated in one or two political parties.
  • Because of multiparty system, variety of interests and opinions enjoy political representation.

 

  1. ‘Lack of internal democracy within parties is the major challenge to political parties all over the world.’ Analyse the statement,

Answer:

Lack of internal democracy within political parties is a major challenge to political parties all over

the world. This statement can be analysed giving the following reasons.

  • It is a tendency among political parties to concentrate power in the hands of one or few top

leaders.

  • Parties do not often keep membership registers and do not hold organizational meetings and

do not conduct internal elections regularly.

  • Sufficient information on what happens inside the party is not provided to the ordinary

members of the party.

  • In such a situation, personal loyalty to the leader becomes more important.

 

  1. ‘Dynastic succession is one of the most serious challenges before the political parties.’ Analyse the statement.

Answer:

The challenge of dynastic succession is undoubtedly one of the most serious challenges before the political parties. The statement can be analysed giving the following arguments.

  • Most parties do not practice open and transparent procedures, hence, there are very few opportunities for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party.
  • Top leaders favour people close to them or even their family members. In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family.
  • This is bad for democracy because people without sufficient experience or popular support are able to enjoy positions of power.

 

  1. How do money and muscle power play an important role in elections? Explain.

Answer:

Ans. Nowadays elections are focused mainly on winning at any cost so parties try to use short-

cuts like money and muscle power.

  • They try to select or nominate those candidates who can raise money or provide muscle

power.

  • Sometimes, wealthy people and big companies also get involved in the democratic politics for

their own interest and influence decision-making process.

  • In many cases, candidates with criminal records, who can win elections, are supported.

 

  1. “Serious efforts were made by the legal organisations to reform political parties in India.” Support the statement.

Answer:

Serious efforts were made by the legal organisations to reform political parties in India. The

following points support the statement.

  • The Supreme Court has made it mandatory for the candidates contesting elections to produce

an affidavit giving details of property and cases pending against them. It is hoped that this will reduce the influence of money and muscle power in elections.

  • Anti-defection law has been passed by amending the constitution to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing their parties.
  • The Election Commission has made it mandatory for the political parties to hold organisational elections and file their income tax returns.

 

  1. Describe any three main features of a two-party system

Answer:

Three main features of a two-party system are as follows.

  • Power usually changes between two parties, while other political parties may exist.
  • The party that wins the majority forms the government, while the other forms the major

opposition.

  • Decision-making and implementation is prompt and quick.
  • Such a system gives a strong and good opposition.

 

  1. What is meant by a national political party? State the conditions required to be a national political party.

Answer:

A national political party is a party that is present in several or all units of the federation. In other

words, it is a country-wide party. It has its units in various states. By and large, all these units follow the same policies. The following are the conditions required for a party to become a national party.

  • A party has to secure at least six per cent of total votes polled in the Lok Sabha elections or

Assembly elections in four states.

  • It has to win at least four seats in the Lok Sabha to be recognised as a national party

 

  1. ‘Nearly every one of the state parties wants to get an opportunity to be part of one or the other national-level coalition.’ Support the statement with arguments

Answer:

Nearly every one of the state parties wants to get an opportunity to be part of one or the other national level coalition because:

  • the members of the state party get a chance of being included in the cabinet or the council of ministers.
  • state parties get an opportunity and a platform to express their views and ideology at the national level.
  • it helps in strengthening of federalism and democracy, and thus bringing diversity in the parliament.

 

  1. What is meant by a regional party? State the conditions required to be recognised as a regional political party.

Answer:

A regional party, also called a state party, is a political party which takes care of regional concerns and state’s interests only. It happens to have succeeded only in some states units of the

federation.

The following are the conditions required for a party to be recognised as a regional party.

 

  • A party has to secure at least six per cent of the total votes polled in the election to the legislative assembly of a state.
  • It has to win at least two seats in the election to the legislative assembly of . a state to be recognised as a state or regional party.

 

  1. Which three challenges do you feel are being faced by political parties in India? Give your opinion.

Answer:

As political parties are the essence of democracy, it is natural that they are often blamed for the failure of any policy or the working of democracy. Mostly, political parties face the following

challenges in their working area.

  • Lack of internal democracy: Political parties face the problem of internal democracy, which

implies that:

  • parties do not hold organisational meetings.
  • they do not conduct regular internal elections.
  • membership of the party members is not fairly registered.
  • all the members, except top leaders, are not included in the decision-making process.
  • Dynastic succession:
  • Another challenge is that in most of the political parties, the top posts are always controlled by the members of one family, which is very unfair to other members.
  • Since open and transparent functioning is lacking, there are very few chances for an ordinary worker to rise to the top.
  • Money and muscle power: The third challenge is the growing role of money and muscle power.
  • Nowadays, elections are focussed mainly on winning at any cost, so parties try to use short- cuts like using money and muscle power.
  • They try to select or nominate those candidates who can raise money or provide muscle power.
  • Sometimes, wealthy people and big companies also get involved in the democratic politics for their own interest and try to influence the decision-making process.
  • In some cases, parties support criminals who can win elections.
  • Absence of a meaningful choice:
  • In the present political scenario, there is no ideological difference among the political parties, so they do not provide a meaningful choice to voters.
  • Those voters, who really want a change in the government and its policies, never get any positive option. For instance, in India, where we have multi-party system, the differences

between the parties over the economic matters have reduced.

  • Also, people cannot even elect different leaders because the same set of leaders keep shifting

from one party to another. (any three)

 

  1. Analyse the three components of a political party.

Answer:

The following are the three elements of a political party.

  • The leaders: The leaders contest elections and, if they win, perform the administrative jobs.
  • The active members: The active members attend party meetings and are close to the party leaders. They can be called the assistants of the leaders.
  • The followers: The followers are the dedicated workers of the party. They work under the able guidance of the active members.

 

  1. What is a political party? State any two points of ideology of Bhartiya Janata Party.

Answer:

A political party is an association or a voluntary group of people who come together to contest

 

election and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes.The ideology of Bhartiya Janata Party is as follows.

  • It wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
  • It wants to build a strong and modern India by drawing inspiration from India’s ancient

culture and values.

  • It wants a uniform civil code for all people living in the country, irrespective of religion.
  • It wants religious conversions to be banned in India. (any three)

 

  1. ‘No party system is ideal for all countries and all situations.’ Justify the statement with arguments.

Answer:

No party system is ideal for all countries and all situations. This statement can be justified giving

the following arguments.

  • A one-party system cannot be considered a good option because the voters do not have any

choice and it is not a democratic option.

  • A two-party system cannot be considered ideal for a country because in this system, power

usually shifts from one party to the other. Several other parties with better programmes and policies may exist, contest elections and win a few seats, but only the two party have serious chance of forming government.

  • A multiparty system also cannot be considered a good option because it often appears messy

and leads to political instability. In this system the government is formed by various parties and ideologies coming together which may further raise issues and conflicts.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. ‘Political parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.’ Analyse the statement with examples.

Answer:

In a democratic set-up, political parties are required because without political parties:

  • every candidate in the elections will be independent. No promises could be made and the utility of the government formed will remain uncertain.
  • no one will be responsible for running the country. Elected representatives will only be accountable to their constituency
  • there will be no agency to gather and present different views on various issues to the government.
  • no one will be responsible for bringing various representatives together so as to form a responsible government.
  • there will be no mechanism to support the government, make policies and justify or oppose them.

 

  1. Suggest and explain any five measures to reform political parties.

Answer:

The following reforms could be suggested in order to strengthen parties so that they perform their

functions well.

  • Regulation of party’s internal affairs: A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of

political parties. It should be made compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of their members, to follow their own constitution, to have an independent authority, etc.

  • State funding: There should be state funding of elections. The government should give money to parties to support their election expenses to avoid corruption.
  • Pressure of public opinion: Political parties can be reformed if people put pressure on them.

This can be done through petitions, propaganda and agitations. Pressure groups and media

play an important role in this.

 

  • Ban on political parties based on religion and caste: The Election Commission should ban the political parties which are formed on the basis of religion and caste.
  • Ensure women participation: It should be made mandatory for all political parties to allot one- third of the tickets to women to ensure their decisive voice in decision making.If the above-

mentioned suggestions are taken into consideration, it can be ensured that these could lead to some improvement in the working of the political parties.

 

  1. Examine any two institutional amendments made by different institutions to reform political parties and their leaders.

Answer:

The following are the two institutional amendments made by different institutions to reform political parties and their leaders.

  • Anti-defection law: The anti-defection law was passed to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing their parties. It was seen that many MLAs and MPs were changing their parties

for personal gains. Now, according to the law, if any MLA or MP changes his/her party, his/her seat in the legislature will be lost. Also, MLAs and MPs have to accept whatever the

party leaders decide.

  • Affidavit: To reduce the influence of money and muscle power (criminals), an order has been

passed by the Supreme Court making it mandatory for every candidate contesting election to file an affidavit giving details of his/her property and criminal records. This system has helped in making a lot of information available to the public. But, we cannot say that this amendment has been successful as it cannot be said that information provided by the candidates is true.

  • Mandatory organisational meeting and filing of ITR: An order has been passed by the Election

Commission making it mandatory for political parties to hold their organisational elections

and file their income tax returns. The parties have started doing this, but sometimes it is only a formality. It is not clear if this step has brought some reform or not. {any two)

 

  1. Describe any five major functions of political parties

Answer:

The following are the various functions political parties perform in a democracy.

  • Contest elections: Parties contest elections. In countries like India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.
  • Put forward policies and programmes: Parties put forward different policies and programmes and voters choose from them. Political parties accommodate different views and opinions.
  • Play an important role in making laws: Political parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature, but since most of the

members belong to a party, they go by the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions.

  • Form and run government: To run the government, political parties prepare a council of ministers by recruiting and training the leaders.
  • Provide access to government machinery and welfare schemes: Political parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.

For an ordinary citizen, it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer.

  • Play the role of position: The party which loses election plays the role of opposition.

Opposition party tries to put checks on the ruling party by constantly criticizing its policies.

  • Shape public opinion: One of the most important functions of political parties is that they

shape public opinion on relevant issues for the proper functioning of the government and to deepen the concept of democracy

 

  1. ‘About hundred years ago there were few countries that had hardly any political party. Now there are few countries that do not have political parties.’ Examine the statement.

Answer:

The statement has two parts.

 

  • About a hundred years ago, there were few countries that had hardly any political party. It shows that very few countries were democratic countries and if they were not democracies, there was no need for political parties.
  • Now there are few countries that do not have political parties. In the last

hundred years many countries became independent from colonial control. After independence, they adopted democratic governments. So there was an increasing necessity for political parties.

The political parties have become very important in a democratic country because of the

following reasons.

  • Not having political parties will lead to chaos and turmoil in the society. It will be against

democratic principles.

  • Without parties, candidates elected will be independent and will not be able to make policies.

They will not be responsible and accountable to the people.

  • The existence of parties in a democracy ensures that a country runs as per its policies and

ideologies and have a government which is answerable to the people.

 

  1. How is dynastic succession a major challenge for political parties in India? Explain.

Answer:

The challenge of dynastic succession is undoubtedly a major challenge for political parties in

India. The following points explain this.

  • Usually, an ordinary worker does not rise to the top positions in a party because the functioning of most political parties is not transparent.
  • Most of the top leaders favour and choose members of their families. This is unfair to other members.
  • The top positions are always controlled by members of one family. This is unhealthy for democracy.
  • People who are at top levels usually do no have adequate experience, education or popular support.
  • The challenge of dynastic succession is related to the challenge of lack of internal democracy.

Non-deserving leaders exercise paramount power and make decisions. Those who disagree

with the leadership find it difficult to continue in the party.

 

  1. How do state or regional political parties contribute in strengthening federalism and democracy in India? Explain with examples.

Answer:

State and regional political parties contribute in strengthening federalism and democracy in India

in the following ways.

  • They provide a variety of choice to people as each of them has different agendas and focus on

different issues.

  • They provide a platform for different pressure and social groups, and communities to put

forward their demands.

  • They help in power sharing by sharing power of government with the help of coalition

government.

 

 

 

 


WATER RESOURCES

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. Which multipurpose project is built on River Satluj How this project has led to the development of the country?

Answer:

The multipurpose project built over River Satluj is Bhakra Nangal.

This project has led to the development of the country in the following ways.

  • The area under irrigation is increased as ample amount of water is released from the dam.
  • It has also been successful in harnessing electricity at a large scale.

 

  1. “Water is a very important and critical resource in India.” Support the statement by explaining any three points.

Answer:

Water is a very important and critical resource in India. The following points support this statement.

  • Water resources are a significant part of the ecological cycle, which enable the existence of all living beings on the earth.
  • Water resources help to carry out several agricultural and agriculture-related activities, thus playing a major role in the development of agricultural production.
  • Water also contributes significantly to the development of industry as it supplies water to various water-based and power-based industries.

 

  1. What is palar parti? What is its significance in the arid regions of Rajasthan?

Answer:

The rainwater which is stored in underground tanks is potable water. It is a reliable source of

drinking water. It is called palar pani.

In the arid regions of Rajasthan, it is important in the following ways.

  • It is the main source of drinking water, when all other sources have dried up.
  • It is considered the purest form of drinking water.
  • In summer, these tanks would keep the underground rooms, adjoining them, clean.

 

  1. Analyse three major causes of water scarcity in India

Answer:

The following are the reasons for water scarcity in India.

  • Increased demand for water: The growing population needs more water for domestic

purposes and to produce more food. Agricultural purposes: For agricultural purposes, water resources are being over-exploited. More food needs to be grown for the increasing population. Intensive industrialisation and urbanisation: The increasing number of industries need more water and power to run the machinery. Hydroelectric power

contributes twenty-two per cent of the electricity produced. The urban centres with large population and modern lifestyles have added to the problem of water scarcity. Over- exploitation of water resources: In some cities, housing societies have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their needs. This has caused the depletion of water resources in several areas.

  • Bad quality of water: The water is getting polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemical pesticides and fertilizers.

 

  1. Describe any three different rainwater harvesting systems practised in India.

Answer:

The rainwater harvesting systems practised India are as follows.

 

  • In hills and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels likeguls or kuls for agriculture.
  • Inundation canals were built in the floodplains of Bengal, to irrigate the fields.
  • In arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, agricultural fields were converted into room-fed

storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil.

 

  1. What is a multipurpose river valley project? Give any four objectives of the multi-purpose river valley projects.

OR

Examine the importance of the river valley projects in the development of hydel power and

irrigational facilities in India. OR

Give any four objectives of the multipurpose river valley projects. Answer:

Multipurpose river valley projects generally refer to large dams that serve several purposes in addition to impounding the water of a river. The water blocked is used for various purposes.

The following are the four objectives of multi-purpose river valley projects.

  • Irrigation of water deficit areas
  • Electricity generation
  • Flood control
  • Water supply for domestic and industrial uses
  • Recreation
  • Inland navigation
  • Fish breeding

 

  1. Explain three traditional methods of rainwater harvesting in India.

Answer:

The rainwater harvesting systems practised India are as follows.

  • In hills and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels likeguls or kuls for agriculture.
  • Inundation canals were built in the floodplains of Bengal, to irrigate the fields.
  • In arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, agricultural fields were converted into room-fed

storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil.

 

  1. Why are different water harvesting systems considered a viable alternative in a country like

India.

Answer:

Different water harvesting systems are considered a viable alternative in a country like

India because of the following reasons.

  • In ancient India, along with sophisticated hydraulic structures, there existed an extraordinary

tradition of rainwater harvesting system.

  • People had in-depth knowledge of rainfall regimes and soil types and developed a wide range

of rainwater harvesting techniques to harvest groundwater, rainwater, river water and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs.

  • For example, in the hilly and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like guls

or ‘kuls’ of western Himalayas for agriculture. Rooftop harvesting is practiced in Rajasthan to

store drinking water. In West Bengal, people developed inundation channels to divert flood waters to irrigate their fields. In semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, agricultural lands

were converted into rain-fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the khadins in Jaisalmer and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan.

 

  1. Why is the need for water increasing day by day? Explain three reasons.

Answer:

 

The need for water is increasing day by day due to growing population, intensive industrialisation and urbanisation.

  • A large population means more water is required not only for domestic use but also for increasing food production. To increase food production, water resources are over-exploited

to increase the area under irrigation and dry season agriculture. Some of the rich farmers have their own wells in their farms for irrigation to increase food production. This in turn has

resulted in lowering of groundwater levels, which affects water availability.

  • Multinational companies are the heavy users of freshwater for power, which puts tremendous

pressure on water resources.  Moreover, multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy needs but have further aggravated the problem.

  • In cities or housing colonies, they have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their

water needs, resulting in over-exploitation and depletion of water resources in many cities.

 

  1. Water resources are depleting fast in India and water is a necessity for life. Suggest three measures to conserve water.

Answer: Water is a resource of utmost importance and waterbodies should not be polluted. Given the present scenario, even the multi-purpose projects are under objection.

Three ways to conserve water are as follows.

  • Rainwater Harvesting: Rainwater, groundwater and river water can be harvested and used for

agriculture purposes and moisten the soil.

  • Do not let the faucet run while brushing teeth, bathing or cleaning vegetables.
  • Check for leaks in pipes, hoses, faucets and couplings.

 

  1. Explain any two consequences of changing crop pattern due to irrigation.

Answer: The following are the two consequences of changing crop pattern due to irrigation.

  • It has resulted in ecological problems like salinisation of the soil.
  • It has also transformed the social landscape by increasing the gap between the rich landowners

and landless poor.

 

  1. Describe the procedure for rooftop rainwater harvesting.

Answer: Rooftop rainwater harvesting involves a number of steps as follows.

  • Rooftop rainwater is collected using a PVC pipe.
  • The collected water is filtered by using sand and bricks.
  • Water is taken to the sump through undergound pipes for immediate use.
  • Excess water is taken from the sump to the well.
  •  Water in the well recharges the underground water.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [5 MARKS]

 

  1. Explain any three reasons due to which large dams have come under great opposition in recent years.

Answer: In recent times the dams have come under great opposition because of the

following reasons.

  • The construction of dams resulted in problems like excessive sedimentation, waterlogging,

soil erosion, sudden floods, large-scale deforestation, extinction of species, displacement of communities and loss of livelihood of tribal communities. Dams also fragment rivers, making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate especially for spawing.

  • Dams that were built to control floods have triggered floods due to sedimentation in the

reservoir. Big dams have been unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall. The release of water from the dams during heavy rainfall, worsens the situation.

  • Multi-purpose projects cause earthquakes, water-borne diseases and pollution due to the excessive use of water.

 

  1. Why is rooftop rainwater harvesting important in Rajasthan? Explain.

Answer: Rooftop rainwater harvesting is important in Rajasthan because of the following reasons.

  • The rainwater stored in tanks is an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
  • Rainwater is considered the purest form of natural water.
  • Many houses have constructed underground rooms adjoining the tanks to beat the summer

heat

  • as it would keep the room clean.
  • There is a lack of perennial rivers in Rajasthan.
  • The rainfall is not reliable in this region.

 

  1. “In recent years, the multipurpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny.” Give reasons.

OR

Mention any four disadvantages of multi purpose projects. OR

How may the multipurpose river valley projects become harmful for the country? Explain with four examples.

OR

Why are multipurpose projects facing resistance? Explain with three reasons.

Ans. (i) Adverse effect on the fertility of the soil: Due to the construction of dams, there are no annual floods in the river. And

because of this, the soil of the downstream region does not get nutrient rich “silt”. This decreases the fertility of the soil.

(ii) Adverse impact on aquatic life: Due to the construction of dams on the rivers, the fish in the downstream area do not get sufficient nutrient material. Regulating and damming of rivers affect

the natural flow of water causing poor sediment flow downward, and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers aquatic

life. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate for spawning i.e., to produce eggs.

(iii) Displacement of local communities : The building of large dams results in displacement of local communities. The local people often have to give up their land and livelihood and their

meagre access and control over resources for the greater food of the nation.

(iv) Change in the cropping pattern : The multipurpose projects are responsible for providing

assured means of irrigation to farmers. Due to this, most of the farmers have changed the cropping pattern shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has led to salinisation of soil

leading to ecological imbalance.

 

  1. How do the multipurpose river projects affect the aquatic life ? Explain.

OR

Explain the ecological problems being faced due to the multi-purpose river projects.

Ans. In recent years, the multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny

and opposition for a variety of reasons :

(i) Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and

excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier streambeds and poorer habitats for the rivers, as well as the aquatic life.

(ii) Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for the aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning.

(iii) The reservoirs that are created on the flood. Plains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over time.

(iv) Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to

 

water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil.

 

  1. Explain the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water scarcity.

OR

Water is available in abundance in India even then scarcity of water is experienced in major

parts of the country. Explain with four examples.

Ans. (i) Quantitative aspect : This aspect is related to the availability of water resources. The

availability of water resources varies over space and time mainly due to variations in seasonal and annual precipitation. However, water scarcity in most cases is caused by over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.

(ii) Qualitative aspect : Now, let us consider another situation where water is sufficiently available

to meet the needs of the people, but, the area still suffers from water scarcity. This scarcity may be due to bad quality of water. Lately, there has been a growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people, much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture, thus, making it hazardous for human use.

 

  1. Why is there an urgent need to conserve and manage our water resources ? Mention three reasons.

OR

Why is it necessary to conserve water resources in India ? Explain.

OR

Why is it essential to conserve, and manage our water resources ? Explain any three

reasons. OR

Why we should conserve our water resources ? Explain any three reasons.

Ans. (i) Precondition for life : Water is necessary for life on earth. It is believed that life

originated in water before it invaded land. Water is in fact a precondition of life.

(ii) Water essential for crops: Cultivation of crops depends on the availability of water. Water

dissolves minerals and other nutrients in the ground. The roots of the plants draw this nutritious water for the soil. India is an agricultural country so availability of water is a must.

(iii) Water and industries : Industries need water as coolant, solvent, raw material, etc.

(iv) Water for daily life : Water is also used for drinking and domestic consumption. The growing

urbanisation with its modern lifestyle has been demanding greater share of water day by day. (v) Water an important component of ecosystem : Conservation of water is also important to prevent degradation of our natural ecosystems.

(vi) Water scarcity : It is essential to conserve and manage water because its overuse and misuse

has lead to water scarcity.

 

  1. How have the growing population, industrialisation and urbanisation led to water scarcity?

Explain.

OR

Explain any four reasons responsible for water scarcity in India.

OR

How have industrialisation and urbanisation aggravated water scarcity in India ?

OR

Give three reasons for water scarcity in post independent India.

OR

Threefourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water but there is still scarcity of water

across the globe.’ Explain giving three reasons. Answer:

The following are the reasons for water scarcity in India.

 

  • Increased demand for water: The growing population needs more water for domestic purposes and to produce more food.
  • Agricultural purposes: For agricultural purposes, water resources are being over-exploited.

More food needs to be grown for the increasing population.

  • Intensive industrialisation and urbanisation: The increasing number of industries ‘ need more water and power to run the machinery. Hydroelectric power

contributes twenty-two per cent of the electricity produced. The urban centres with large population and modern lifestyles have added to the problem of water scarcity.

  • Over-exploitation of water resources: In some cities, housing societies have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their needs. This has caused the depletion of water

resources in several areas.

  • Bad quality of water: The water is getting polluted by domestic and industrial

wastes, chemical pesticides and fertilizers.

 

 

 

 

AGRICULTURE


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. Distinguish between primitive subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.

Answer:

The following are the differences between primitive subsistence farming and intensive

subsistence farming.

Primitive subsistence farming Intensive subsistence farming
1)It is practiced on a small patch of

land.

1)It is practiced in areas of high

population pressure on land.

2)It is done with the help of

primitive tools like hoe,dao and digging sticks.

2)It is done with the help of fertilizers,

insecticides, pesticides, HYV seeds, use of machines and other implements.

3)This type of farming is depended

on monsoon.

3)It is entirely depended on machines.
4)When the soil fertility decreases

the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.

4)The farmers continue to take

maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative source of

livelihood.

5)The production is only for home

consumption.

5)The productions is not only for farmer

consumption. It is for other people also.

 

  1. Define plantation agriculture. Explain any four characteristics of plantation agriculture.

Answer:

Plantation is a type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown on a large area. The

following are the four characteristics of plantation.

  • Plantations have very large areas.
  • Capital-intensive inputs are used.
  • Migrant labourers are used.
  • All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries.
  • The development of plantations is the result of a well-developed network of transport and

communication, connecting plantations to markets

 

  1. How has irrigation changed the cropping pattern in many regions of India. Explain with examples.

Answer:

Irrigation has changed the cropping pattern of many regions, with farmers shifting to water-

intensive and commercial crops.

  • Due to the success oi the Green Revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and

parts of Rajasthan, these states have started growing rabi crops like wheat, barley, peas and gram.

  • Paddy has become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam, West

Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. They are Aus, Aman and Boro.

  • The development of canal irrigation and tubewells has made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
  • The use of modem inputs like HYV (High Yielding Variety) seeds, fertilizers and irrigation has contributed to high production of maize.

 

  1. “Wheat and rice farming in India are fairly different from each other.” Support the statement with five suitable examples.

Answer:

Wheat Rice
(a) It is a rabi crop and a temperate crop. (a) It is a kharif crop and a tropical crop.
(b) It requires about 10–15°C temperature and a rainfall of 60–75 cms. (b) It requires more than 25°C temperature, high humidity with annual rainfall of above 100 cms.
(c) It requires well drained fertile soil. (c) It requires fertile alluvial soil with a clayey layer above.
(d) Leading producers are Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. (d) Leading producers are West Bengal, Kerala and Punjab.
(e) It does not require much of labour. (e) It requires cheap labour for transplantation.

 

  1. Explain rubber cultivation in India under the following heads. (a) Importance

(b) Geographical conditions

(c) Any two rubber-producing states

Answer:

  • Importance: Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
  • Geographical conditions: It is an equitable crop, which is grown in tropical and subtropical

areas. It requires moist and humid climate with temperature above 25°C and rainfall above

200 cm.

  • Two rubber-producing states: It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and

Garo hills of Meghalaya

 

  1. Explain rice cultivation in India under the following heads. (a) Temperature (b) Rainfall

(c) Agricultural season (d) Major producing areas

Answer:

  • Temperature: Rice requires a high temperature of above 25°C.
  • Rainfall: It requires high humidity with an annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, irrigation is essential.
  • Agricultural season: It is a kharif crop, which is grown with the onset of monsoon and is harvested in September-October.
  • Major producing areas: Rice is cultivated in the plains of north and northeastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of canal irrigation and tubewells have

made it possible to grow rice in areas of low rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar

Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.

 

 

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [5 MARKS]

 

  1. Describe the conditions required for the cultivation of tea. Name two major tea-producing states of India.

Answer: Tea is an important beverage crop. The following are the conditions required for its

cultivation.

  • The tea plant grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have deep, fertile and well-

drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.

  • Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
  • Tea bushes require frequent showers throughout the year to ensure continuous growth of tender leaves. It needs abundant, cheap and skilled labour.

 

  • Two major tea-producing states are Assam and West Bengal.

 

  1. Name the two most important staple food crops in India. Mention the geographical conditions required for their growth.

Answer: The two most important staple food crops in India are rice and wheat.

he geographical conditions required for the growth of rice are as follows.

  • It requires high temperature—above 25°C.
  • It requires high humidity for its growth.
  • It requires annual rainfall above 100 cm.

The geographical conditions required for the growth of wheat arenas follows.

  • It is a rabi crop and needs cool growing season.
  • It requires bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
  • It also requires 50 to 70 cm of annual rainfall, well distributed over the growing season.

 

  1. Explain any five features of comprehensive land development programme initiated during

1980s and 1990s.

OR

Describe any five technological and institutional reforms initiated to improve the standard

of agriculture in India. OR

Describe any four institutional reforms introduced by the government of India in the interest of the farmers.

Answer. Comprehensive land development programme included both institutional and technical reforms. Following reforms were introduced:

(a) Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease.

(b) Establishment of Grameen Banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities

to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction. (c) Kissan Credit Card (KCC) was introduced for easy availability of inputs.

(d) Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) was introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.

(e) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.

(f) The government also announced minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

 

  1. What are the challenges faced by the farmers today?

Answer: (a) Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and reduction in public investment in agricultural sector especially in irrigation, power infrastructure

and other inputs.

(b) Subsidy on fertilizers is decreased leading to higher cost of production.

(c) Reduction in import duties on agriculture products.

(d) Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture, resulting in lack of alternative

employment opportunities.

(e) Erratic nature of monsoons also affects agriculture production on a large scale.

 

  1. Suggest any five measures to enhance the agricultural production in India

Answer: Agricultural is an important economic activity in our country. I would like to suggest the following measures to enhance the agricultural production in India.

  • Each district and block can be made self-sufficient in agricultural production if the government provides proper agricultural infrastructure, irrigation facilities, electricity, etc.
  • Loans can be provided at lower interest rates to cultivator.
  • The use of latest techniques can be encouraged.

 

  • Instead of concentrating only on rice or wheat, the food crop with a better growth potential in that particular area must be encouraged.
  • Attracting foreign investment in agriculture and also free trade in grains will not only increase agricultural production, but will also create massive employment and reduce poverty in rural

areas.

  • Farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops.

 

  1. Mention the geographical conditions required for the growth of cotton along with any four cotton-producing states.

Answer: Cotton is a kharif crop. India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plants.

The geographical conditions required for the growth of cotton are as follows.

  • Cotton grows in the drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan Plateau.
  • Cotton needs high temperature, light rainfall, 210 forest-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
  • It requires 6 to 8 months to grow.
  • Major cotton-producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka

 

  1. What is intensive subsistence farming? Write three features of intensive subsistence farming.

Answer:

Intensive subsistence farming is practiced in areas of high density of population, where pressure of population is high on agricultural land.

The following are the three features of this type of farming.

  • It is labour-intensive farming.
  • High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher , production.
  • Farm size is small and uneconomical due to the division of land.
  • Farmers take maximum output from the limited land.
  • Farmers do not have any alternative source of livelihood. Thus, there is enormous pressure on

agricultural land.

 

  1. Explain any five steps taken by the central and state governments to improve Indian agriculture after independence.

Answer:

Various initiatives taken by the central and state governments to ensure the increase in

agricultural production after independence are as follows.

  • Collectivism, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were

given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.

  • Land reforms were the main focus of the First Five Year Plan.
  • The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution

(Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve Indian agriculture.

  • Minimum Support Price Policy, provisions for crop insaurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are some of the reforms brought by the government.
  • Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities,

veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development and weather forecast etc. were given priority for improving Indian agriculture.

The term used for grouping of small land holdings with bigger ones is consolidation of land holdings.

 

  1. Explain any five features of Indian agriculture.

Answer:

The following are the five features of Indian agriculture.

  • Indian agriculture is mainly of intensive subsistence type.

 

  • It is mainly practiced in areas of high population pressure on land.
  • It is labour-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used

for obtaining high yields.

  • Farmers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternate

source of livelihood, which leads to enormous pressure on agricultural land.

  • The right of inheritance has led to division of land among successive generations and rendered

the size of land holding uneconomical.

 

  1. How is Rice farming different from Wheat farming in respect of the following? (a) Sowing and harvesting time.

(b) Rainfall / irrigation requirements. (c) Areal distribution.

Rice Wheat
 

1. It is sown with the onset of the monsoon i.e. June-July. Rainfall should be 100 cm or irrigation is necessary.

1. It is sown with the withdrawal of the monsoon i.e. November. Rainfall

should be 50-75 cm or irrigation is

necessary.

2. Harvesting is done in the month of

October-November.

2. Harvesting is done in the month of

March-April.

3. It is grown in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh.  

3. It is grown in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar

Pradesh.

4. Yield per hectare is high. 4. Yield per hectare is low.

 

(d) Yield per hectare. Answer :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain any five characteristics of commercial farming in India.

Answer: The following are the five characteristics of commercial farming in India.

  • The main characteristic of commercial farming is the use of high doses of modern inputs, like

HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides, in order to obtain higher productivity.

  • The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another, for example rice is a commercial crop in Punjab and Haryana but in Odisha it is a subsistence crop.
  • Plantation is also a type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown on a large area.
  • Plantations cover large areas using capital intensive inputs with the help of migrant labourers.
  • In India tea, coffee, rubber, sugar cane and banana are important plantation crops.

 

  1. Describe the various technological and institutional reforms, which led to Green and White revolutions in India?

Answer : Green Revolution.

(i) Technical inputs resulted in the green revolution in sixties and seventies of the twentieth

century.

(ii) High yielding and early maturing variety of seeds have been used. (iii) Instead of bio-fertilizers, chemical fertilizers are used.

(iv) Flooding of fields are replaced by drip irrigation and the use of sprinklers.

White Revolution.

(i) The Dairy Development led to the white revolution or “Operation Flood”. (ii) The dairy co-operation in the rural areas helped in rural development.

(iii) The National Milk Grid achieved Operation Flood.

(iv) Cross breed from foreign and native cattle have been developed.

 

  1. Write four geographical requirements each for the growth of tea and sugar cane.

Answer:

For geographical conditions required for the growth of tea.

The following are the geographical conditions required for the production of sugar cane.

  • It is a tropical as well as sub-tropical crop.
  • It needs hot and humid climate with temperature of 21°C to 27°C.
  • It requires annual rainfall between 75 cm and 100 cm.
  • It can grow on a variety of soil.

 

  1. Describe any four institutional reforms introduced by the government of India in the interest of the farmers.

Answer:

The institutional reforms introduced by the government of India in the interest of formers are as follows.

  • Collectivisation and consolidation of land holdings and abolition of zamindari system.
  • Provision for crop insurance against droughts, floods, cyclone, fire and diseases.
  • Establishment of grameen banks and cooperative societies to give loans to the farmers at low rate of interest.
  • Announcement of minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
  • Introduction of schemes like Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance

Scheme (PAIS) for the benefit of the farmers. (any four)

 

  1. Why is the growth rate in agriculture decelerating? How did the Government of India make efforts to modernise agriculture? Explain.

Answer:

The growth rate in agriculture is decelerating due to the following reasons.

  • Reduction in public investment in agriculture especially for irrigation, power, rural roads, etc.
  • Subsidy on fertilisers has decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
  • Reduction in import of agricultural goods
  • Lack of employment in agriculture
  • Erratic nature of monsoon rainfall

To modernise agriculture the Government of India has taken concerted efforts like the following.

  • Setting up of Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
  • Setting up of agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres.
  • Horticulture development
  • Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast
  • Improvement of rural infrastructure

 

 

 



SECTORS OF THE INDIAN ECONOMY

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [3 MARKS]

 

  1. Why has the entire tertiary sector not grown in importance? Explain.

Answer: The entire tertiary sector has not grown in importance because of the following reasons:

  • Peculiarity of skills in the tertiary sector: Highly-educated and skilled professionals only

are able to get employment. Other engage themselves in low-paid jobs.

  • High incomes: Higher incomes are available for the top-level administrative jobs only. Low-

paid jobs do not attract employment.

  • No job security: Large number of workers are casual with irregular and low incomes barely

to sustain livelihoods.

 

  1. Why does disguised employment not help in productivity of a country? Explain with the help of an example.

Answer: Disguised employment means that more number of people employed in an economic activity than required. If these extra people are removed, there will be no effect on the production.

They seem to be employed but actually they are not. The workforce is not being used to its potential. They divide the work but do not increase production.

They do not help in increasing the productivity as their efforts are not economic. For example, in the rural areas, the entire family is engaged in the production of crops on the same piece of land.

If there are ten people in the family, three people can manage the production. If the extra seven people ard removed the productivity will be the same. They seem to be making no contribution.

Hence, it is truly stated that disguised or hidden employment does not help in productivity of a country.

 

  1. Explain the meaning of disguised employment with the help of an example

Answer: The following are the features of the unorganized sector.

  • Working hours are more and harsh.
  • No job security is there.
  • No employment benefits are given.
  • Employees work in poor working conditions.

 

  1. Explain the objectives of implementing the NREGA 2005

Answer: National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (NREGA) is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the right to work.

  • It aims at enhancing livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do

unskilled manual work.

  • The NREGA was initiated with the objective of “enhancing livelihood security in rural areas

by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year, to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.”

  • Another aim of NREGA is to provide employment within 5 km of an applicant’s residence, and minimum wages are to be paid. If work is not provided within 15 days of applying,

applicants are entitled to an unemployment allowance.

 

  1. Explain with suitable examples which part of the service sector is not growing in importance.

Answer: The employment generation part of service sector is not growing in importance. The

service sector in india employs different kinds of people. At one end, there are a limited number of services that employ highly skilled and educated workers.

At the other end, there are a very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair persons cattle, owners transport drivers and electricians. These people barely

 

manage to earn there living and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunity for work are available for them.

 

  1. Highlight the three factors responsible for the growth of service sector in the Indian economy.

Answer: Ever since the service sector got liberalized in the year 1991, it has seen constant

growth. The following are the reasons responsible for the growth of service sector in the Indian economy.

  • Increase in the income of people: Since the income level of the people has been increasing ever since, with increasing affluence there is increase in the demands of the services like

maids, cooks, servants and gardeners. (h) Increase in population: With an increase in number of people in the country, the demand for service sector has increased. Demands for service

like schools, health department and nursing homes have increased.

  • Increase in numbers of working women: With the passage of time there has been a massive

increase in the number of working women in India. This has led to increase in demands in the service sector like household help, babysitters and cooks.

 

  1. Explain disguised unemployment with two examples, one from urban areas and other from rural areas.

Answer:

Disguised unemployment is a kind of unemployment in which some people look like being employed but are actually not employed fully. This situation is also known as hidden

unemployment. It refers to a situation wherein more people are engaged in a work than required. When the surplus workers from a rural area engaged in the activity or the work, are removed, the

production remains unaffected.

In urban areas, there are many people who are employed. Their jobs do not suit their

qualifications. Disguised unemployment can be seen in the service sector where painters, repair person, plumber, etc. are doing odd jobs. Many of them do not find work on a daily basis. Taking an example, there is a shop, which require only two persons for handling it, but if there are three servants and one owner to look after the shop, then this shows that two servants are in the situation of disguised unemployment.

In rural areas, disguised employment can be seen in the agricultural sector. Most often, all the

members of a family are engaged on the same piece of land. If a few members are withdrawn, there will no effect on the production. So, the members who are withdrawn are in the situation of disguised unemployment.

 

  1. “Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundries.” Explain

Answer:

Environmental degradation is a global issue, which has been discussed and debated over the past

decades. It is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. It affects and depletes the ecosystem, hampers the ozone layer and is responsible for extinction of wildlife. Environmental degradation is not restricted to national or state boundaries. It hampers the surroundings irrespective of any national or state boundaries and its harmful effects are well felt in the surrounding states and neighbouring countries and even globally.

For example, if India has a lot of air pollution through massive thermal power plants and other sources, it affects its neighbouring countries like Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Acid rain and climate change are some transcontinental issues. Land degradation in india affects Bangladesh as it brings massive silt and floods.

Therefore, environmental degradation is a serious issue which has grabbed the attention of all countries irrespective of boundaries because protecting the environment is the need of the hour at the global level.

 

  1. How did NREGA 2005 bring upliftment of the rural people? Explain.

Answer:

The NREGA 2005 has helped in the upliftment of Rural people in the following manner.

  • Guaranteed Employment: Any adult member of a rural household applying for work under the

Act is entitled to employment. Every rural household is entitled to 100 days of

employment. Guaranteed Wages: Wages are to be paid on a weekly basis and not beyond a

fortnight. Wages are to be paid on the basis of:

  • Centre-notified, state-specific NREGA wage list
  • Time rates and piece rates as per state-specific Schedule of Rates (SoRs).
  • In any case, the wage cannot be at a rate less than Rs. 60 per day.
  • Unemployment Allowance: If work is not provided within 15 days of applying, the state is expected to pay an unemployment allowance which is one- fourth of the wage rate.

 

  1. Explain the interdependence of all three sectors giving examples from transportation system.

Answer:

All the three sectors, primary, secondary and tertiary, are interdependent to each other in the following ways.

  • Primary sector makes possible the extraction of natural resource like iron. This iron is then taken to the secondary sector for manufacturing through the transportation system like trucks.

The extraction process is supported by the financing and information technological institutions.

  • It is through the secondary sector that the natural resource iron is changed into other forms through the process of manufacturing. Manufacturing again need the support of the service

sector in the form of engineers, electricians, etc. Iron is changed into iron sheets and then into vehicles for transportation.

  • Once manufactured, the vehicles are sold through various trading agencies. These vehicles are used for providing services in the tertiary sector and at the same time support the primary

and the secondary sectors to carry out their processes.

 

  1. What constitutes the unorganized sector in urban areas? Why do workers in this area need protection?

Answer:

In the urban areas, unorganised sector comprises mainly small-scale industry, casual workers in

construction, trade and transport, street vendors, head-load workers, garment makers, ragpickers, etc. All these workers constitute unorganized sector in urban areas.

A majority of workers in the unorganized sector are from scheduled castes scheduled tribes and backward communities. Workers in unorganised sector urban areas need protection because,

besides getting the irregular and low- paid work, these workers also face social discrimination. They are looked down upon by the people in urban areas. Protection and support to the

unorganised sector workers is thus necessary for both economic and social development.

 

  1. How does service sector help in the development of primary and secondary sectors? Explain with examples.

Answer:

After primary and secondary sectors, there is a third sector called the service sector also known as

tertiary sector. Activities that fall under the service sector help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors by not directly producing a good but helping these sectors by activities that are an aid or a support for the production process.

For example, goods that are produced in the primary or secondary sector would need to be

transported by trucks or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops. At times, it may be necessary to store these goods in godowns. We may also need to talk to others over telephone or send letters (communication) or borrow money from banks (banking) to help production and

 

trade. Transport, storage, communication, banking and trade are some examples of service or tertiary sector.

Since these activities generate services rather than goods, they promote primary and secondary sectors by providing expertise, finance, transportation, advertisement, etc.

 

  1. With the example of sugar cane, explain the interdependence of all the three sectors of economy.

Answer:

Primary Sector: cultivation of sugar cane

Secondary Sector: processing of sugar cane to make sugar Tertiary sector:

  • Transportation of sugar cane into factories for processing it into sugar
  • Transportation of sugar packs to various markets
  • Sale of sugar by wholesalers and retailers.

So, the process starts when the sugar is cultivated. Since cultivation is part of agriculture, it comes

in the primary sector. After the cultivation, the sugar cane is processed to make sugar in the factories, which is an industrial process and thus comes in the secondary sector. After which, the sugar is transported to various markets, where it is sold by retailers and wholesalers which is part of tertiary sector.

In this way, all the three sectors are interdependent.

 

  1. How far is it correct to say that several services which cannot be provided by private sector can be provided by the public sector? Explain.

Answer: A few examples of public sector activities are Indian Railways, water, electricity board and modes of transport.

There are several necessities of common man, but it is not possible for the private sector to provide all these things at reasonable cost. For example, water and electricity are the basic needs

of everyone. If the work of providing these is given to private sector then the latter can exploit this opportunity by selling the same at high rates. Therefore the supply of basic amenities is given

to the government so that it provides these facilities to the people at low and affordable rates, ensuring the smooth and uninterrupted supply to the public.

 

  1. Name the sector that is the largest employer in India. Why does this sector produce only a quarter of the National GDP?

Answer: The agricultural sector (Primary) is the largest employer in India. Nearly 51% of the

population is engaged in this section in one way or the other. However, its share in the national

GDP is very less because of the following reasons.

  • The average size of the land holdings is very low which results in low productivity per holder.
  • Less use of modern technology and knowhow among the farmers to increase crop

productivity.

  • The systems of providing financing and marketing facilities have been insufficient since

independence. The farmers are not able to get benefits fr6m the loan facilities and access to large markets.

  • Absence of alternate income generating activities in rural areas give rise to disguised unemployment where efficient labour force is not used to its optimum.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [5 MARKS]

 

  1. What is unorganized sector? Describe the working procedure of this sector.

Answer:

An unorganized sector is a sector that is not registered by the government. It is characterized by small and scattered units. Being outside the control of the government, no rules and regulations

are followed regarding the employment and working conditions.

This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own doing small jobs

 

such selling things on the street or doing repair work. Working procedure in unorganized sectors is as follows.

  • The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units, which are largely outside the control of the government.
  • There are rules and regulations but these are not followed.
  • Jobs here are low-paid and often not regular.
  • The condition of workers in unorganized sector is not good or stable.
  • There is no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness, etc.
  • Employment is not secure. People can be asked to leave without any reason. When there is less work, such as during some seasons, some’people may be asked to leave.
  • A lot also depend on the whims of the employer.
  • This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own, doing small

jobs such as selling things on the street or doing repair work

 

  1. Give five reasons for the rising importance of the tertiary sector in production

Answer:

Over the forty years, between 1970 and 71, and 2010 and 11, while production in all the three sectors has increased, it has increased the most in the tertiary sector. The following factors are

making the tertiary sector important in India.

  • Basic services: In any country, several services such as hospitals, educational institutions,

post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village administrative offices, municipal corporations, defence, transport, banks and insurance companies, are required. These can be considered as basic services. In a developing country, the government has to take responsibility for the provision of these services.

  • Development of primary and secondary sector: The development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport, trade and storage. The greater the development of the primary and secondary sectors, the more would be the demand for

such services.

  • Rise in income levels: As income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding many more services like eating out, tourism, shopping, private hospitals, private schools and professional training centres. We can see this change quite sharply in cities, especially in big cities.
  • Rise in information technology: Over the past decade or so, certain new services, such as those based on information and communication technology have become important and essential. The production of these services has been rising rapidly.
  • Globalization: Due to globalization, people have become aware of new services and

activities, and communication because of which the tertiary sector has gained importance.

 

  1. Explain with suitable examples how public sector contributes to the economic development of the nation.

Answer:

  • Creation of infrastructure: Public sector promotes the economic development since it brings

about creation and expansion of infrastructure and the infrastructure plays an important role in economic development.

  • Generates financial resources: Public Sector provides for various employment opportunities since major part of public sector depends on fhanpower and higher employment

opportunities implies higher generation of financial resources for economic development.

  • Contributes to HDI: Public sector majorly contributes to the Human Development Index

since health and education industries come under the purview of public sector.

  • Availability of goods: Public sector helps in availability of goods at moderate rates, which

helps in maintaining financial security and thus helps in economic development.

  • Provides encouragement: It provides encouragement to small, medium and cottage

production units. It also strives for the creation of welfare state.

 

  1. Describe the provisions of the National Rural employment Guarantee Act 2005

Answer:

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 aims to guarantee the right to

work. It also aims at improving livelihood in rural areas.

The following are the provisions of the NREGA.

  • Eligibility: Any Indian citizen who is above the age of 18 years and resides in the rural area is entitled to apply for work.
  • Distance: Work is to be provided by the government in a radius of 5 km of the applicant if possible and in any case within the block. If the work provided is beyond 5 km of distance,

extra travel allowance is to be paid.

  • Wages: Workers under NREGA are entitled to the statutory minimum wage applicable to

agricultural labourers in the state, until and unless the central government notifies a different wage. In whichever case, the minimum wage cannot go below ? 60 per day.

  • Timely payment: Workers are to be paid weekly or in any case not later than a fortnight.

Payment of wages should be made directly to the person concerned on pre-announced dates.

  • Entitlement: Any applicant is entitled to work within 15 days, for as many as he/she applied, subject to a limitataion of 100 days per year per household.

 

  1. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sector?

Answer:

 

  1. What is GDP? Explain the process to calculate GDP.

Answer:

The GDP, which is the Gross Domestic Product, is the value of all final goods and services

produced within a country during a particular year. The value of final goods and services

produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that

year. And the sum of production in the three sectors gives what is called the Gross Domestic

Product (GDP) of a country. The GDP shows how big the economy is.

In India, the mammoth task of calculating GDP is undertaken by the Central Government. This ministry, with the help of various government departments of all the Indian states and union territories, collects information relating to total volume of goods and services and their prices and then estimates the GDP. The GDP is usually calculated on annual basis. It includes private and

 

public consumption, government outlays, investments and that occur within a defined territory.

  1. Distinguish between public and private sectors.

Answer:

 

  1. Give five reasons for the rising of the tertiary sector in India.

Answer:

Over the forty years, between 1970 and 71, and 2010 and 11, while production in all the three

sectors has increased, it has increased the most in the tertiary sector. The following factors are making the tertiary sector important in India.

  • Basic services: In any country, several services such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village administrative offices, municipal

corporations, defence, transport, banks and insurance companies, are required. These can be considered as basic services. In a developing country, the government has to take

responsibility for the provision of these services.

  • Development of primary and secondary sector: The development of agriculture and

industry leads to the development of services such as transport, trade and storage. The greater the development of the primary and secondary sectors, the more would be the demand for

such services.

  • Rise in income levels: As income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding

many more services like eating out, tourism, shopping, private hospitals, private schools and professional training centres. We can see this change quite sharply in cities, especially in big cities.

  • Rise in information technology: Over the past decade or so, certain new services, such as those based on information and communication technology have become important and

essential. The production of these services has been rising rapidly.

  • Globalization: Due to globalization, people have become aware of new services and

activities, and communication because of which the tertiary sector has gained importance.

 

  1. Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of nation.

Answer:

  • Creation of infrastructure: Public sector promotes the economic development since it brings about creation and expansion of infrastructure and the infrastructure plays an important role in

economic development.

  • Generates financial resources: Public Sector provides for various employment opportunities

since major part of public sector depends on manpower and higher employment opportunities implies higher generation of financial resources for economic development.

  • Contributes to HDI: Public sector majorly contributes to the Human Development Index since health and education industries come under the purview of public sector.
  • Availability of goods: Public sector helps in availability of goods at moderate rates, which helps in maintaining financial security and thus helps in economic development.
  • Provides encouragement: It provides encouragement to small, medium and cottage production units. It also strives for the creation of welfare state

 

  1. In what ways can employment be increased in urban areas?

Answer:

Urban unemployment is characterised by the existence of both open unemployment, which in turn

is an offshoot of rural unemployment itself, and the educated unemployment. Main causes of urban unemployment are insufficient economic development, defective system of education and slow growth of industrialisation.

Urban unemployment can be increased in the following ways.

  • Reform of the educational system to make it vocational at the school stage.
  • Concrete action will have to be taken to promote decentralisation and dispersal of industrial

activity.

  • Promotion of small-scale industries and encouragement to self-employment

by banks.

  • Develop techniques of production that can be taken up with low capital intensity.
  • Provision of infrastructure like railways, roads, hospitals and schools which will not only create employment opportunities but also contribute to development.

 

  1. How can more employment opportunities be created in the rural areas?

Answer. The following steps can be taken to create more employment in the rural areas.

(a) Loans should be provided to small farmers by the government or bank to have more irrigation

facilities like wells and tube wells in order to enable them to grow second crop.

(b) New dams and canals should be constructed. This will lead to more employment in the

agricultural sector.

(c) Transportation and storage facilities must be improved to provide productive employment to

not only the farmers but also to others in services like transport and trade.

(d) Banks should provide agricultural credit to the farmers for farming to improve.

(e) Industries such as dal mill, cold storage, honey collection centers and processing of vegetables should be set up in rural or semi-rural areas. Such industries will get raw materials from the rural areas and will create more employment opportunities for the rural people.

(f) More schools should be opened in rural areas. This will provide jobs to about 20 lakh people in

the education sector.

(g) Health services should be improved by opening dispensaries and hospitals. This will create

jobs for doctors, nurses and other staff.

(h) Tourism, regional craft industry and Information Technology should be encouraged by the

government to create more employment opportunities. (any five)

 

  1. What is the role of government in public sector?

Answer. The following points sum up the role of government in public sector.

 

(a) Welfare of the people: The modern state is a welfare state that looks after the interests of its citizens. People pay different types of taxes and expect their representatives or the government to follow policies for their welfare. Services like railways, posts and telegraphs are run by the government for the welfare of the people.

(b) Large expenditure: Some activities like construction of roads need large sums of expenditure that cannot be borne by the private sector. So, the government takes up such activities in the interest of the people in a democracy.

(c) Support of the government: There are some activities that need support of the government in

the form of subsidy such as provision of foodgrains for the poor through ration shops. The government buys wheat, paddy etc. at a higher price but sells at a lower price at ration shops.

(d) Duty of the government: It is duty of the government to raise the living standard of the people. It should make arrangements for quality education and health services in order to take care of the

poorest and most ignored regions of the country through increase in expenditure in such areas. Thus, the government takes up various activities and spends a lot of expenditure on them.

 

  1. What is Planning Commission? What have been its findings?

Answer. Planning Commission is a body set up by the Central Government that conducts economic survey and chalks out programmes and policies to tackle economy-related issues.

The following have been the findings of the Planning Commission. (a) 20 lakh jobs need to be created in the education sector alone.

(b) There is a dire need to improve health standards by appointing doctors, nurses and health workers, especially in the rural areas.

(c) Development of income generating potentials like tourism, regional craft, etc. in the rural areas through proper planning. It has been said that if tourism as a sector is improved, every year

we can give additional employment to more than 35 lakh people.

(d) Development of IT sector, which could generate employment to lakhs of people in the urban

areas.

 

 


 

 

 

 

MONEY AND CREDIT

 

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [1 MARK]

 

  1. What is collateral?

Answer: Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns such as land, building, vehicle, livestock, deposits with the banks and uses these as a guarantee to the lender until the loan is

repaid.

 

  1. Define credit.

Answer: Credit refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with

money, goods or services in return for the promise of future payments with interest.

 

  1. Which are the two major sources of formal loan for rural households?

Answer: Banks and Cooperatives

 

  1. What is the meaning of barter system?

Answer: A system where goods are directly exchanged without the use of money is called barter

system.

 

  1. What is meant by double coincidence of wants?

Answer: Double coincidence of wants means owner of good X, say shoes, to find someone else

with good Y, say wheat, and both being in need of each other’s good

 

  1. Define money.

Answer. Money is anything which has common acceptability as a means of exchange, a measure

and a store of value.

 

  1. Why is money called ‘a medium of exchange’?

OR

How does money act as a medium of exchange?

Answer: Money acts as an intermediary in the process of exchange, thus it is called a medium of

exchange.

 

  1. What is a cheque?

Answer: A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from a person’s

account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.

 

  1. What is a debt-trap?

Answer. A debt-trap is a situation when it becomes impossible to repay the loan and the borrower

adds on a new debt to pay the existing debt.

 

  1. Why are banks unwilling to lend loans to small farmers?

Answer. Banks provide loans after collateral and documentation securities, which generally the small farmers fail to comply with. Therefore, banks are unwilling to give loans to small farmers.

 

  1. Who supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans?

Answer: Reserve Bank of India

 

  1. What are the two forms of modern currency?

Answer: Paper notes and Coins

 

  1. How do the deposits with the banks become their source of income?

Answer: Banks use a major portion of deposits to extend loans. They charge a higher rate

of interest on loans than what they offer on deposits. The difference between what is charged

from borrowers and what is paid to the depositors is the main source of income for the banks.

 

  1. Why can one not refuse a payment made in rupees in India?

Answer: One cannot refuse a payment made in rupees in India because it is authorised

by the government of India. It is accepted as a medium of exchange all over the country.

 

  1. Compare formal sector loans with informal sector loans regarding interest only.

Answer: In formal sector, the rate of interest is low. It is fixed by the Reserve Bank of India, who

supervises the functioning of formal sources of loan.

In informal sector, the rate of interest is very high as there is no organisation to supervise the

functioning of informal sources of loan.

 

  1. Why is the supervision of the functioning of formal sources of loans necessary?

Answer: It is necessary to supervise the functioning of formal sources of loans because the banks

have to maintain a minimum cash balance out of the deposits they receive. They should also provide loans to small cultivators, mall scale industries etc.

 

  1. Prove with an argument that there is a great need to expand formal sources of credit in rural India.

Answer: There is a great need to expand the formal sources of credit in rural India because:

  • There is no organisation to supervise credit activities of the informal sector. It could lead to increasing debt among the borrowers.
  • The rate of interest is very high in informal sector.

 

  1. Why are most of the poor households deprived from the formal sector of loans?

Answer: Most of the poor households are deprived from the formal sector of loans because they

do not have the collateral to keep with the banks.

 

  1. How does money eliminate the need for double coincidence of wants?

Answer: Money solves the problem of double coincidence of wants by acting as a medium of

exchange.

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. In situations with high risks, credit might create further problems for the borrower.

Explain?

Answer: Whether a credit would be useful or not, will depend on a number of factors like – risks

involved, whether there is some support against a loss, terms of credit etc. It is a fact that in situations with high risks, credit might create further problems for the borrower. For example, credit taken by farmers for cultivation might create problems for the farmer at some times. Crop production involves high costs on inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation etc. Farmers generally take loans at the beginning of the season and repay the loan after harvest. But the failure of the crop makes loan repayment impossible. Then in order to repay the loan sometimes, they become bound to sell part of their land. So, their situations become worse than before. The incidences of farmers’ suicides especially in Maharashtra are the burning examples of this situation. Thus, whether a credit would be useful or not, depends on the various risks involved in the situation.

 

  1. How does money solve the problem of double coincidence of wants? Explain with example of your own.

Answer: In a barter system where goods are directly exchanged without the use of money, double coincidence of wants is an essential feature. By serving as a medium of exchanges, money

removes the need for double coincidence of wants and the difficulties associated with the barter system. For example, it is no longer necessary for the farmer to look for a book publisher who

will buy his cereals at the same time sell him books. All he has to do is find a buyer for his

cereals. If he has exchanged his cereals for money, he can purchase any goods or service which he

needs. This is because money acts as a medium of exchange.

 

  1. How do banks mediate between those who have surplus money and those who need money?

Answer: We know that banks accept the deposits from the people who have surplus money and

also pay an interest on the deposits.

But banks keep only a small portion (15 per cent in India) of their deposits as cash with

themselves. This is kept as provision to pay the depositors who might come to withdraw money from their accounts in the bank on any day. They use the major portion of the deposits to extend loans to those who need money. In this way banks mediate between those who have surplus money and those who need money.

 

  1. When does credit push the borrower into a debt-trap? Explain with the help of an example.

Answer:

In situation with high risks, credit might create problems and pushes the borrower into a debt-trap.

He is much worse off than before. For example, crop production involves high costs on inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, water etc. Farmers generally take loans at the beginning of the season and repay the loan after harvest. But the failure of the crop makes loan repayment impossible. They have to sell part of the land to repay the loan or a fresh loan may be required to repay the previous loan, and the borrower may find himself caught in a vicious circle and recovery from such a situation is very painful.

 

  1. “Most of the poor households still depend on the informal sector for loans, both in rural and urban areas of India.” Support the statement with three examples.

OR

“Poor households still depend on informal sources of credit.” Support the statement with examples.

Answer:

Poor households still depend on informal sources of credit because:

  • Bank loans require proper documentation and collateral which is rarely available with poor households.
  • Informal sources of credit such as moneylenders know the borrowers personally and are often willing to give a loan without a collateral.
  •  Sometimes, if the borrowers are unable to return the loan, they can get additional loans from moneylenders.

 

  1. How do SHGs help borrowers to overcome the problem of lack of collateral? Explain with an example.

Answer:

SHGs help borrowers to overcome the problem of lack of collateral in the following ways:

  • It is the group that is responsible for the repayment of loan.
  • Any case of non-payment of loan by any member is followed up seriously by other members.
  • The formal sector is willing to lend to the members of SHGs because of their good track

record of managing the credit.

 

  1. Why is there a great need to expand formal sector of credit in India? Explain any three reasons.

Answer: There is a great need to expand formal sector of credit in India because:

  • There is no organisation to supervise the credit activities of lenders in informal sector.
  • The rate of interest charged by the informal sector is very high as compared to formal sector.
  • People who might wish to start a business by borrowing may not do so because of high cost

of borrowing in informal sector.

  • The higher interest rate of borrowing can mean that the amount to be repaid is greater than

the income of the borrower in informal sector.

 

  1. “Money has made transactions easy.” Justify.

Answer: Money has made transactions easy because:

  • It can be easily exchanged with any commodity or service.
  • It solves the problem of double coincidence of wants.
  • It is the perfect store of value.
  • It makes economic activities quite independent from each other.

 

  1. How is money used as a medium of exchange? Explain with examples

Answer: Money is used as a medium of exchange because it serves as a common medium through which people can carry out buying and selling. Use of money makes

economic activities independent of each other. At the same time, it removes the inconvenience caused by the barter system.

For example, a person wants to sell sugar and buy wheat. He has to look for a person who wants sugar and has wheat to sell. In contrast, if in an economy, where money is used, the person who

wants to sell sugar only has to look for a buyer for his sugar. The money which he will get can be used to purchase the wheat or any other commodity in the market. Since, money is used in the

exchange process it is called a medium of exchange.

 

  1. What are the modern forms of money? Why is rupee widely accepted as a medium of exchange? Explain two reasons.

Answer: Modern forms of money include paper notes and coins.

Rupee is widely accepted as a medium of exchange because:

  • It is authorised by the government of India.
  • The law legalises the use of rupee as a medium of payment and settling the transactions.

Thus, no one can refuse a payment made in rupees.

 

  1. What is a collateral? Why do lenders ask for collateral while lending? Explain

Answer:

A collateral is an asset such as land, building, livestock, vehicle or deposits with the banks that the borrower owns and uses this as a guarantee to the lender until the loan is repaid.

The lenders ask for a collateral before lending because:

  • It is an asset that the borrower owns and uses this as a guarantee to the lender – until the loan

is repaid.

  • Collateral with the lender acts as a proof that the borrower will return the money.
  • By keeping a collateral with the lender, the borrower is bound to be regular in paying the interest because the borrower does not want to lose the collateral.

 

  1. What are demand deposits? How is money safe in the banks? Explain.

Answer:

Deposits in the bank account which are payable on demand are called demand deposits.

Banks accept deposits from number of people. Some part of that money is given out as loan and the other part is kept with the banks for making payments. So, the money is safe with the banks. The depositors can withdraw their money whenever they want.

 

  1. How can money be easily exchange for goods or services? Give an example to explain.

Answer:

Transactions are made in money because a person holding money can easily exchange it for any commodity or a service. It solves the problem of double coincidence of wants by acting as a

medium of exchange.

For example, a shoe manufacturer wants to sell shoes in the market and wants to buy rice. Under

barter system, both parties selling shoes and rice have to agree to buy and sell each other’s commodities and this creates a problem which is referred to as double coincidence of wants. This problem is overcome by the introduction of money. Now, the shoe manufacturer will sell the shoes for money and with that money he can buy rice.

 

  1. “The credit activities of the informal sector should be discouraged.” Support the statement with arguments.

Answer:

The credit activities of the informal sector should be discouraged because:

  • There is no organisation to supervise the credit activities of the lenders in informal sector.
  • The informal sector lends at a very high rate of interest and use unfair means to get the money back.
  • Higher cost of borrowing means a large part of the earnings of the borrowers is used to repay the loan. Hence, the borrowers have less income left for themselves.
  • Sometimes, due to higher rate of interest, the amount to be repaid becomes higher than the income of the borrower due to that there is always a risk for borrowers to fall in debt-trap.

 

  1. “Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s development.” Assess the statement.

Answer:

Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for a country’s development because:

  • More lending would lead to higher incomes and encourage people to invest in agriculture,

engage in business and set up small industries.

  • Cheap credit will enable more investment. This leads to acceleration of economic activity.
  • Cheap credit would also allow weaker sections of society to access formal sector of lending and get rid of from informal moneylenders.
  • Affordable credit would also end the cycle of debt trap.
  • Cheap and easy terms of credit would inspire better investment in technology and thus

increase competition.

 

  1. “Deposits with the banks are beneficial to the depositors as well as to the nation.” Examine the statement

Answer:

Deposits with the banks are beneficial to the depositors as well as to the nation in various ways.

Some of them are:

  • They provide safe and secure deposits to a person’s money.
  • They provide excellent saving and investment options and also help in the growth of the nation.
  • They provide interests on the deposited money to the depositors.
  • Money can be easily withdrawn from the banks as and when required by the depositors.
  • They provide easy loans on nominal rates that make it possible for the common man to build their own assets.

 

  1. ‘Credit has its own unique role for development.’ Justify the statement with arguments.

Answer:

Credit has a unique role in the economic development of the country. It is needed by all the three

sectors of the economy.

 

  • In urban sector, big businessmen and small manufacturers need loans either to expand their enterprises, bring new technology or diversifying their businesses.
  • In rural sector, the main demand for credit is for crop production. Crop production involves cost of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, water, electricity, repair of equipments. Cheap credit

would thus lead to increase in production.

  • Even tertiary sector needs loans to buy the latest equipments and technology. Thus, we can

say that credit has a unique role in the development of a country.

 

 

 

  1. How is money transferred from one bank account to another bank account? Explain with an example.

Answer:

For payment through cheque, the payer who has an account in the bank, draws out a cheque for a specific amount. The cheque is a statement asking the bank to pay a specific amount from the

person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.

For example, Aman has to pay a specific amount of money to Shruti, say ? 60,000. Aman will

write a cheque in the name of Shurti. It means Aman instructs his bank to pay the money to Shurti. Shurti will deposit the cheque in her bank. After two or three days, the money will be transferred from Aman’s account to Shurti’s account.

 

  1. How does money solves the problem of double coincidence of wants? Explain with an example.

Answer:

In barter system, where goods are directly exchanged without the use of money, double

coincidence of wants (i.e. a person desires to sell exactly what the other person wishes to buy) is an essential feature. But it, indeed, is a very cumbersome process.

By serving as a medium of exchange, money removes the situation of double coincidence of

wants and the difficulties associated with the barter system. For example, it is no longer necessary

for a shoe manufacturer to* look for a farmer who will buy his shoes and at the same time sell him wheat. AH he has to do is to find a buyer for his shoes, who will exchange his money for shoes. Now, he can purchase wheat or any other good in the market with the help of the money earned. Thus, the problem of double coincidence of wants gets solved with the use of money.

 

  1. How is money used in everyday life? Explain with examples.

Answer:

In everyday life, money is used in following ways:

  • It is used as a medium of exchange and facilitates the buying and selling of goods like car, house, food, clothes etc.
  • It is used as deposits with the banks or to keep it at home like fixed deposits, bonds etc.
  • It is used for borrowing and lending like loan.

 

  1. Explain with examples, how people are involved with the banks.

Answer:

People are involved with the banks in the following ways:

  • Depositors
  • Borrowers
  • The people with excess money deposit it in the banks for safety. In turn they earn interest on the amount deposited.

At the same time, there are people who need money for various activities. They approach the banks for credit. The bank charges interest from the borrowers.

 

  1. Why do lenders ask for a collateral while lending? Give any three reasons.

Answer:

The lenders ask for a collateral before lending because:

  • It is an asset that the borrower owns and uses this as a guarantee to the lender – until the loan

is repaid.

  • Collateral with the lender acts as a proof that the borrower will return the money.
  • By keeping a collateral with the lender, the borrower is bound to be regular in paying the interest because the borrower does not want to lose the collateral.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. Describe the vital and positive role of credit with examples.

Answer:

Credit plays a vital and positive role in the following ways:

  • It helps people from all walks of life in setting up their business, increase their income and

provide support to their family needs.

  • It makes it possible for the people to own or construct their own house and get relief from

monthly rent.

  • People often avail themselves of credit to purchase luxury items like vehicles, A.Cs, etc.,

which further raises their standard of living.

  • It enables us to invest in human resource. People take credit for education, training, etc.

which allows enrichment of human resource.

  • For example, Salim availed credit facility to meet the working capital needs of production. It

helped him to meet the ongoing expenses of production, complete production on time, thereby, increasing his income.

 

  1. How can the formal sector loans be made beneficial for poor farmers and workers? Suggest any five measures.

Answer:

The formal sector loans can be made beneficial to poor farmers and workers in following ways:

  • The process of providing loans should be made easier and accessible to them.
  • Large number of banks and cooperatives should be opened in the rural areas.
  • Banks and cooperatives should expand their facility of providing loans so as to decrease

dependence on informal sector.

  • Special focus should be paid on poor and small farmers along with small scale industries.
  • Loan processing should be simple, faster and timely.

 

  1. Why is it necessary for the banks and cooperative societies to increase their lending facilities in rural areas? Explain.

Answer:

Banks and cooperatives should extend their lending activities in rural areas because:

  • Rural poor and farmers have to borrow money from moneylenders at a very high rate of interest. Therefore, the cost to the borrowing is very high.
  • A large part of the earnings of borrower is used to repay the loans. Hence, they have less income.
  • Sometimes, a higher rate of lending means that the amount to be repaid is more than the earnings of the borrower.
  • To save the people from the clutches and exploitation by the moneylenders, it is necessary for the banks and co-operatives to extend their lending activities.
  • It would lead to higher incomes and improve the condition of the rural poor.
  • People can also start a business or set up a small scale industry

 

  1. Why is modern currency accepted as a medium of exchange without any use of its own?

Find out the reason.

Answer:

Modern money has been accepted as a medium of exchange because:

  • It is authorised by the government of a India.
  • It is issued by the apex bank on behalf of the government.
  • No other individual is allowed to issue currency.
  • The law of the country legalises its use as a medium of payment and setting transactions.
  • No one in a country can refuse payment made in the currency of that country.

 

  1. How are deposits with the banks beneficial for individual as well as for the nation? Explain with examples.

Answer:

Deposits with the banks are beneficial to the depositors as well as to the nation in various ways.

Some of them are:

  • They provide safe and secure deposits to a person’s money.
  • They provide excellent saving and investment options and also help in the growth of the nation.
  • They provide interests on the deposited money to the depositors.
  • Money can be easily withdrawn from the banks as and when required by the depositors.
  • hey provide easy loans on nominal rates that make it possible for the common man to build their own assets.

 

  1. What are Self-Help Groups? How are they emerging as an important source of credit?

Explain. Answer:

Self-Help Groups are a group of 15 to 20 poor villagers, especially women, who regularly pool money at regular intervals. When a member of the group is in need of money, he/she can get the

loan from the group at a low rate of interest.

SelfHelp Groups are emerging as an important source of credit because:

  • They charge less interest on the loans than what the moneylenders charge.
  • All decisions regarding savings and loans are taken by the members of the group.
  • The members can take loans from the groups to meet their daily needs.
  • If the group is regular in its savings, they can also take loan from the bank. Loan is sanctioned

in the name of the group. The group is responsible for the repayment of loan.

  • They help borrowers to overcome the problem of collateral.
  • They have freed borrowers from the clutches of the moneylenders.

 

  1. How do banks play an important role in the economy of India? Explain

Answer:

Banks play an important role in developing the economy of India by taking the following steps:

  • Banks keep money of the people in safe custody to be used by the depositors in future.
  • Banks also increase the savings of the depositors by paying interest on the money deposited.
  • Banks mediate between people who have surplus and those who need money. This is done

through granting loans. People avail themselves of these loan facilities to increase production and income.

  • Banks, being the formal source of credit, give loans at a very low rate of interest at flexible terms and conditions.
  • Special provisions are made through banks for the upliftment of agriculture and industry like waiving of loans of the farmers.

 

  1. Explain with an example how credit plays a vital and positive role for development.

Answer:

Credit plays a vital and positive role in the following ways:

  • It helps people from all walks of life in setting up their business, increase their income and

provide support to their family needs.

  • It makes it possible for the people to own or construct their own house and get relief from

monthly rent.

  •  People often avail themselves of credit to purchase luxury items like vehicles, A.Cs, etc.,

which further raises their standard of living.

  • It enables us to invest in human resource. People take credit for education, training, etc.

which allows enrichment of human resource.

  • For example, Salim availed credit facility to meet the working capital needs of production. It

helped him to meet the ongoing expenses of production, complete production on time, thereby, increasing his income.

 

  1. Why is it necessary for banks and cooperatives to extend their lending activities in rural areas? Explain.

Answer:

Banks and cooperatives should extend their lending activities in rural areas because:

  • Rural poor and farmers have to borrow money from moneylenders at a very high rate of

interest. Therefore, the cost to the borrowing is very high.

  • A large part of the earnings of borrower is used to repay the loans. Hence, they have less

income.

  • Sometimes, a higher rate of lending means that the amount to be repaid is more than the

earnings of the borrower.

  • To save the people from the clutches and exploitation by the moneylenders, it is necessary for

the banks and co-operatives to extend their lending activities.

  • It would lead to higher incomes and improve the condition of the rural poor.
  • People can also start a business or set up a small scale industry

 

  1. What are the two categories of sources of credit? Mention four features of each.

Answer:

The two categories of sources of credit are:

  • Formal sources of credit
  • Informal sources of credit

The features of formal sources of credit are:

  • They charge low rate of interest and the mode of repayment is easy.
  • They keep a collateral from the borrowers for granting loans.
  • Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of credit, (id) Urban households are largely depend on formal sources of credit.
  • They include banks and cooperatives.

The features of informal sources of credit are:

  •  They charge higher rate of interest and the mode of repayment is very harsh.
  • There is no need to keep a collateral in informal sources of credit.
  • There is no organisation to supervise the functioning of informal sources of credit.
  • Poor households are largely depend on informal sources of credit.
  • They include moneylenders, relatives, friends etc.

 

  1. What is money? Why is modern money currency accepted as a medium of exchange?

Answer:

Money is anything which has common acceptability as a means of exchange, a measure and a store of value.

Modern money has been accepted as a medium of exchange because:

 

  • It is authorised by the government of a India.
  • It is issued by the apex bank on behalf of the government.
  • No other individual is allowed to issue currency.
  • The law of the country legalises its use as a medium of payment and setting transactions.
  • No one in a country can refuse payment made in the currency of that country.

 

  1. Why is cheap and affordable credit important for the country’s development? Explain any three reasons.

Answer:

Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for a country’s development because:

  • More lending would lead to higher incomes and encourage people to invest in agriculture, engage in business and set up small industries.
  • Cheap credit will enable more investment. This leads to acceleration of economic activity.
  • Cheap credit would also allow weaker sections of society to access formal sector of lending

and get rid of from informal moneylenders.

  • Affordable credit would also end the cycle of debt trap.
  • Cheap and easy terms of credit would inspire better investment in technology and thus increase competition.

 

  1. “Whether credit will be useful or not, depends upon the situation.” Give two different examples in support of this statement

Answer:

The two examples showing whether credit will be useful or not, depends upon the situation are:

  • Chirag is a shoe manufacturer. During the festival season, he receives an order for 3,000 pair

of shoes to be completed in a month. He employs two more workers for pasting and stitching. He takes an advance payment from a large trader for 1,000 pair of shoes. He asks the leather supplier to supply leather and payment would be made later. Chirag completes the order in a month, makes a good profit and repay all the money that he had borrowed.

  • Sapna, a small farmer, grows groundnut in her three acres of land. She took a loan from the moneylender, hoping to repay the loan, once the crop is harvested. Being hit by the pest, the crop fails. Expensive pesticides did not make any difference. Sapna is unable to repay the moneylender and the other year, it becomes a bigger amount. Next year again, she took a loan for cultivation. It is not a bumber crop this year too. Sapna earns little, but it is not enough to repay the old loans. She had to sell a part of the land to repay the loan. She is caught in a debt. This situation is called debt-trap.
  • Hence, we can say that it depends on situation whether credit will be useful or not.

 

  1. Which government body supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans in India?

Explain its functioning. Answer:

Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans in India.

  • It issues currency notes on behalf of the central government.
  • It issues guidelines for fixing rate of interest on deposits and lending by banks. ,,
  • It ensures that banks should maintain a minimum cash balance out of the deposits they

receive.

  • It ensures that the banks should give loans not only to profit making businesses but also to

poor people and small traders.

  • Periodically, the banks have to submit a report to the RBI on how much they are lending, to

whom and at what interest rate.

 

  1. Describe any four advantages of Self-Help Groups for the poor.

Answer:

The advantages of Self-Help Groups for the poor are:

 

  • They help the poor to become self-reliant in terms of savings and generating income as the decisions regarding savings are taken by the group members.
  • They avail the facilities of loans from formal sources like banks at low rate of interest.
  • They create self-employment opportunities by discussion within their group.
  • They make it possible for the poor to avail timely finance without any collateral.

 

  1. Explain two points of differences between formal and informal sources of credit.

Answer:

 

  1. Explain any four terms of credit with examples.

Answer:

The four terms of credit are:

  • Interest rate. The borrower has to pay a sum of money as interest along with the principal

amount.

  • Collateral. It is an asset that the borrower owns and uses this as a guarantee – to the lender

untill the loan is repaid.

  • Documentation. Proper documents of borrowing with all the terms and conditions must be

submitted.

  • Mode of repayment. The mode through which the borrower will repay the loan must be

clearly mentioned. Long-term loans can be repaid in annual, half yearly or monthly installments.

 

  1. How does the use of money make exchange of things easier? Explain with examples.

Answer:

Money is used as a medium of exchange because it serves as a common medium

through which people can carry out buying and selling. Use of money makes

economic activities independent of each other. At the same time, it removes the inconvenience

caused by the barter system.

For example, a person wants to sell sugar and buy wheat. He has to look for a person who wants

sugar and has wheat to sell. In contrast, if in an economy, where money is used, the person who wants to sell sugar only has to look for a buyer for his sugar. The money which he will get can be used to purchase the wheat or any other commodity in the market. Since, money is used in the exchange process it is called a medium of exchange.

Let us take an example of a farmer who wants to sell wheat and wants to buy goat in lieu of that.

If he opts for barter system, he will have to search a person who may be interested in giving off his goat and in taking wheat. But finding such a person can be difficult and time-consuming. On the other hand, if the farmer sells wheat and takes money for that, he can easily go and purchase goat with that money.

 

  1. Why are the deposits in the banks called ‘demand deposits’? What are the benefits of deposits with the banks?

Answer:

People deposit the surplus or extra money in the banks. The banks keep the money safe and

provide interest on it. The deposits can be drawn at any time on demand by the depositors. That is why they are called demand deposits.

The benefits of deposits with the banks are:

  • They can be encashed by issuing cheques in the name of the person to whom the payment is to

be made.

  • They make it possible to directly settle payments without the use of cash.
  • Since demand drafts/cheques are widely accepted as a means of payment along with currency, they constitute money in the modern economy.

 

  1. Question 5: Why do we need to expand formal sources of credit in India?

Answer: We need to expand formal sources of credit in India for many reasons:

  • Compared to formal lenders, most of the informal lenders charge much higher interest rates on loans like 3% to 5% per month i.e. 36% a year.
  • Besides the high interest rate, informal lenders impose various other tough conditions. For example, they make the farmers promise to sell the crop to him at a low price. There is no such condition in formal sector.
  • Informal lenders do not treat well with the borrowers. On the other hand, there is no such situation no such situation in the formal sector.
  • The Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans. In contrast, there no organization which supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector.
  • Loans taken by poor people from informal lenders sometimes, lead them to debt-trap because of high interest rate.
  • The formal sources of credit in India still meets only about half of the total credit needs of the rural people.

So, it is necessary that the formal sources of credit expand their lending especially in rural

areas, so that the dependence on informal sources of credit reduces as this will also help in the development of the country.

 

  1. How does credit plays a vital and positive role? Explain with suitable example.

Answer:

Credit plays a vital and positive role in the following ways:

  • It helps people from all walks of life in setting up their business, increase their income and provide support to their family needs.
  • It makes it possible for the people to own or construct their own house and get relief from monthly rent.
  •  People often avail themselves of credit to purchase luxury items like vehicles, A.Cs, etc., which further raises their standard of living.
  • It enables us to invest in human resource. People take credit for education, training, etc. which allows enrichment of human resource.
  • For example, Salim availed credit facility to meet the working capital needs of production. It helped him to meet the ongoing expenses of production, complete production on time,

thereby, increasing his income.

 

 

 


GLOBALISATION AND THE INDIAN ECONOMY

 

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [1 MARK]

 

  1. In which two different forms do we participate in the market?

Answer: We participate in the market as producers and consumers.

 

  1. What is multinational corporation?

Answer: A multinational corporation is a company that owns or controls the production of its

goods in more than one country.

 

  1. Define the term investment.

Answer: An investment is an asset or item that is purchased with the hope that it will generate

income in future.

 

  1. Give the meaning of globalisation.

Answer: Globalisation means integrating the economy of a country with the economies of other

countries under conditions of free flow of trade, capital and movement of persons across borders.

 

  1. Why had the Indian Government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment after independence? State any one reason.

Answer: To protect the producers within the country from foreign competition.

 

  1. What is the meaning of investment?

Answer: The money that is spent to buy assets such as land, building, machines and other

equipments is called investment.

 

  1. What is meant by trade barrier?

Answer: It refers to the various restrictions which are used by the government of a country to

increase or decrease foreign trade such as tax on imports.

 

  1. Why did the Indian government remove barriers to a large extent on foreign trade and foreign investment?

Answer: The Indian government realised that its domestic industries had established themselves and it was the proper time to face competition and improve the quality of production. So, barriers

on foreign trade and investment were removed.

 

  1. Differentiate between investment and foreign investment.

Answer: The money that is spent to buy assets such as land, building, machines etc. is called

investment whereas investment made by a MNC to buy such assets is called foreign investment.

 

  1. What is foreign investment?

Answer. Investment made by MNCs is called foreign investment.

 

  1. Due to what reason are the latest models of different items available within our reach?

Answer: Globalisation

 

  1. How are the MNCs spreading their production across the globe?

Answer. MNCs are spreading their production across the globe by setting up partnerships with local companies, by using the local companies for supplies and by closely competing with local

companies or buying them up.

 

  1. Why do MNCs set up their offices and factories in those regions where they get cheap labour and other resources?

Answer: MNCs set up their offices and factories in those regions where they get cheap labour and other resources because they bring down the cost of production and ensure more profits for

themselves.

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. Explain how globalisation can be made fairer.

Answer: Globalisation can be made fairer in the following ways:

  • Policies should be made in such a way that they protect the interests of not only the rich and

prosperous producers but also the workers.

  • The government can negotiate with World Trade Organisation for fairer rules and can align

with developing countries to stand against the domination of developed countries.

  • Equal space should be provided to both developed and developing economies to explore the

market and compete.

 

  1. Give the meaning of WTO. Mention any two shortcomings of WTO. Answer: WTO stands for World Trade Organisation which was started at the initiative of developed countries to liberalise international trade.

Answer: The shortcomings of WTO are:

  • It is dominated by the developed countries who manipulate its policies to favour their interest, thus ignoring the developing countries.
  • It was supposed to allow free trade, but the developed countries have unfairly retained trade barriers whereas it forced the developing countries to remove the trade barriers.

 

  1. What is a trade barrier? Wliy did the Indian government put trade barriers after

Independence? Explain.

Answer: Trade barriers are the restrictions that are imposed by the government on free import

and export activities so as to protect its producers and entrepreneurs.

The Indian government put barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment after independence because:

  • It was considered necessary to protect the producers within the country from foreign

competition.

  • In 1950s and 1960s, the industries were in nascent stage and competition from imports at that

stage would not have allowed these industries to develop.

  • Therefore, India allowed the imports of only essential items like machinery, fertilizers,

petroleum etc.

 

  1. Explain with three examples how top Indian companies have benefitted from globalisation.

Answer: The top Indian companies have benefitted from globalisation in the following ways:

  • They have been able to survive in the international competition.
  • They have invested in newer technology and production methods and raised their production

standards.

  • They also have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies.
  • Many of them have emerged as multinationals themselves such as Tata Motors and Asian

Paints.

  • It has provided them new opportunities for expansion and value addition of their services. (any three)

 

  1. What are the harmful effects of MNCs to a host country? Give three examples.

Answer: The harmful impacts of MNCs to a host country are:

  • They can hamper the growth of local industries by giving them tough competition.

 

  • They generally use capital intensive techniques which may not be suitable for a developing country like India, where unemployment is a big problem.
  • They may misuse the environment of the host country by over exploiting its natural resources.

 

  1. “Information and communication technology has played a major role in spreading out products and services across countries.” Support the statement.

Answer: Information and communication technology has played a major role in spreading out products and services across countries. In recent years, technology in the areas of

telecommunication facilities (telegraph, telephone including mobile phone) are used to contact one another around the world.

For example, a news magazine published for London readers is to be designed and printed in

India. The text is sent through the internet to Delhi office. Design of the magazine is also sent to

Delhi from London office using telecommunication facilities. The design is done on a computer. After printing, the magazines are sent to London by air. The payment for the services from London to Delhi is done instantly through the internet (e-banking).

 

  1. Explain the role of government in- making globalisation fair.

Answer: Government can play an important role in making globalisation fair in the following

ways:

  • Policies should be made in such a way that they protect the interests of not only the rich and

prosperous producers but also the workers.

  • Labour laws should be properly implemented favouring the workers so that their basic rights

like sustainable wages, better working conditions, health etc. are not hampered.

  • Efforts should be made to protect the small producers from international competition and

prepare a stage for their survival.

 

  1. What is the meaning of SEZ? Mention any two features of SEZ.

Answer: Special Economic Zones. These are designated areas in a region set up by the

government to attract foreign companies to invest in their countries. The features of Special Economic Zones are:

  • The companies who set up production units in these areas are exempted from paying taxes for an initial period of five years.

These areas are provided with best infrastructural facilities like roads, water, transportation, communication, markets etc.

 

  1. What would happen if Government of India puts heavy tax on import of Chinese toys?

Explain any three points. Answer:

If Government of India puts heavy tax on import of Chinese toys, then

(a) the Chinese toys will become expensive and may be people will not buy them and, thus, the

Chinese toys will loose their market in India.

(b) people in India, will buy local made goods (toys) and the local industries will get a boost and

their sale will also go up.

(c) as there would be greater demand of Indian goods, the Indian, manufacturers, then, will earn

more profits and workers will get more employment.

  1. How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries in the world? Explain with examples.

Answer: Foreign trade integrates the markets of different countries as:

  • It provides an opportunity for both producers and consumers to reach beyond the markets of their own country.
  • Producers now compete with markets located in other countries.
  • There is an expansion of choice of goods beyond the domestic market.

 

For example, during the Diwali season, buyers in India have the option of buying either Indian or Chinese decorative lights and bulbs. The Chinese manufacturers get the opportunity to expand their business.

 

  1. “The impact of globalisation has not been visualised uniformly among producers and workers.” Support the statement with facts.

Answer: Everyone has not benefitted from globalisation. While people with education, skill and wealth have made the best use of the opportunities offered by globalisation, the others have not

shared the benefits. While producers have become MNCs, the workers are facing many problems. Globalisation and competition among producers have changed the life of the workers. Most

employers want to employ workers flexibly which means: jobs are no longer secure. Earlier workers were employed permanently. Now, they employ the workers temporarily, when there is

pressure of work, otherwise they are dismissed.

 

  1. How do multinational companies manage to keep the cost of production of their goods low?

Explain with examples.

Answer: The multinational companies manage to keep the cost of production of their goods low in the following ways:

  • They set up production jointly with some of the local companies of these countries. For example, Ford Motors spent Rs. 21700 crores to set up a large plant near Chennai in

collaboration with Mahindra and Mahindra. In India, labour and transportation cost is very low which cuts down the cost of production.

  • They buy up local companies and expand production. For example, Cargill Foods, a large

American MNC bought Parakh Foods. The company got ready made infrastructure. As

production increases, cost comes down.

  • They place orders for production with small producers. They purchase garments, footwear,

sports goods and sell them under their brand name.

 

  1. How are local companies benefited by collaborating with multinational companies? Explain with examples.

Answer: The local companies are benefited by collaborating with multinational companies in the following ways:

  • They provide money to the local companies for additional investments like buying new machines to replace the old ones.
  • They bring the latest technology for production.
  • They may build new stores and office buildings, thus providing employees with modern

surroundings.

 

  1. Why had Indian government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment after independence? Explain.

Answer: The Indian government put barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment after independence because:

  • It was considered necessary to protect the producers within the country from foreign competition.
  • In 1950s and 1960s, the industries were in nascent stage and competition from imports at that stage would not have allowed these industries to develop.
  • Therefore, India allowed the imports of only essential items like machinery, fertilizers, petroleum etc.

 

  1. Why have the barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment been removed to a large extent by the Indian government? Explain.

Answer:

In 1991, the Indian government decided that the time has come for Indian producers to compete

 

with producers around the world. It felt that foreign competition would improve the quality of goods produced by Indian producers within the country.

Thus, barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment were removed to a large extent. It meant goods could be imported or exported easily and foreign companies could set up factories and

offices in India.

 

  1. How have markets been transformed is recent years? Explain with examples.

Answer:

The advent of globalisation and the policy of liberalization have opened the market to the world players. It has given rise to wide choice of goods and services to the consumer.

MNCs have played a vital role in the world market. Foreign trade and investment in the country has increased. It has also resulted in exchange of technology between countries. In recent times,

technology in the areas of telecommunications, computers and internet has been changing rapidly. Globalisation has also created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly

those involving in IT. Better job opportunities for people have given rise to migration. Globalisation has also enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as multinationals For

example, Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy have expanded their operations around the world.

 

  1. How did ‘Cargill Foods’ become the largest producer of edible oils in India? Explain.

Answer: Cargill Foods, a very large American MNC, bought Parakh foods, which had a large

marketing network in many parts of India. It was a well reputed company. It had four oil refineries, whose control passed to Cargill Foods. Cargill Foods is, now, the largest producer of edible oil in India, with a capacity of making 5 million pouches daily.

 

  1. Why did Ford Motors want to develop Ford India as a component supplying base for its other plants across the globe? Explain.

Answer: Ford Motors wanted to develop Ford India as a component supplying base for its other plants across the globe because:

  • Ford Motors was selling 27,000 cars in the Indian market and 24,000 cars were exported from

India to South Africa, Mexico and Brazil. India was making components and know how to

produce them, so they could be easily manufactured and sent across the globe.

  • Sending components from India to other plants will reduce the time in manufacturing the

components and the orders could be placed immediately. Same plants would not need to be set up at all locations.

 

  1. “Foreign trade integrates the markets in different countries.” Support the statement with arguments.

Answer: Foreign trade integrates the markets of different countries as:

(a) It provides an opportunity for both producers and consumers to reach beyond the markets of their own country.

(b) Producers now compete with markets located in other countries.

(c) There is an expansion of choice of goods beyond the domestic market.

(d) For example, during the Diwali season, buyers in India have the option of buying either Indian or Chinese decorative lights and bulbs. The Chinese manufacturers get the opportunity to expand their business.

 

  1. “Technology has stimulated the globalisation process.” Support the statement with examples.

Answer: Technology has stimulated the process of globalisation in the following ways:

  • Transportation technology has witnessed several improvements in past fifty years. This has

made much faster delivery of goods across long distances possible at lower costs, such as use of containers have led to huge reduction in port handling costs and increased the speed with

 

which exports can reach markets. Also, the cost of air transport has fallen. Ultimately, it has stimulated the globalisation process.

  • Telecommunication has also shown remarkable development. Computers, internet, e-mail, voice-mail, etc. are used intensively to contact one another around the world.
  • There has been a remarkable development in information and communication technology. It has enabled to access information instantly and communicate even in the remotest areas. Call

centres use this to satisfy their customers abroad or provide outsourcing services from anywhere.

 

  1. ‘Barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment were removed to a large extent in India since 1991.’ Justify the statement.

Answer: In 1991, the Indian government decided that the time has come for Indian producers to

compete with producers around the world. It felt that foreign competition would improve the quality of goods produced by Indian producers within the country.

Thus, barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment were removed to a large extent. It meant goods could be imported or exported easily and foreign companies could set up factories and

offices in India.

 

  1. “A wide ranging choice of goods are available in the Indian markets.” Support the statement with examples in context of globalisation.

Answer: The Indian market has been transformed in recent years. The consumers have a wide variety of goods and services to choose from, which were not available earlier. For example:

The latest models of mobile phones, television, digital cameras of leading manufacturers and other well known brands of the world are easily available in the markets.

New models of cars and automobiles are launched every season.

The top companies in the world have introduced their popular brands in India for various products

like shirts, fruit juices, cosmetics, toys, furniture, stationery etc. All this has been possible only due to globalisation.

 

  1. “Globalisation and greater competition among producers has been of advantageous to consumers.” Justify the statement with examples.

Answer: Globalisation and greater competition among producers has been of advantageous to

consumers in the following ways:

  • Consumers in today’s world have a wide variety of goods and services to choose from. The

latest models of digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by the leading manufacturers are available to them.

  • Consumers now enjoy better and improved quality at lower prices.
  • It has resulted in higher standards of living.
  • There has been a varying impact on producers and workers.
  • Many top Indian companies have been able to establish themselves as multinational

corporations.

  • Latest technology and production methods have raised production standards.

 

  1. Why had the Indian government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment after independence? Analyse the reasons.

Answer: The Indian government put barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment after

independence because:

(a) It was considered necessary to protect the producers within the country from foreign

competition.

(b) In 1950s and 1960s, the industries were in nascent stage and competition from imports at that

stage would not have allowed these industries to develop.

(c) Therefore, India allowed the imports of only essential items like machinery, fertilizers,

petroleum etc.

 

  1. How have our markets been transformed? Explain with examples.

Answer: The advent of globalisation and the policy of liberalization have opened the market to the world players. It has given rise to wide choice of goods and services to the consumer.

MNCs have played a vital role in the world market. Foreign trade and investment in’the country has increased. It has also resulted in exchange of technology between countries. In recent times,

technology in the areas of telecommunications, computers and internet has been changing rapidly. Globalisation has also created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly

those involving in IT. Better job opportunities for people have given rise to migration. Globalisation has also enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as multinationals For

example, Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy have expanded their operations around the world.

 

  1. How does foreign trade integrates the markets of different countries? Explain with examples.

Answer: Foreign trade integrates the markets of different countries as:

(a) It provides an opportunity for both producers and consumers to reach beyond the markets of

their own country.

(b) Producers now compete with markets located in other countries.

(c) There is an expansion of choice of goods beyond the domestic market.

(d) For example, during the Diwali season, buyers in India have the option of buying either Indian

or Chinese decorative lights and bulbs. The Chinese manufacturers get the opportunity to expand their business.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. What is globalisation? Describe the role of Multinational Corporatiops (MNCs) in promoting globalisation process.

Answer:

Globalisation: integrating the economy of a country with the economies of other countries under

conditions of free flow of trade and capital and movement of persons across borders. MNCs play an important role in promoting globalisation process in the following ways:

  • They serve as agents for the transfer of superior technology. They have provided advanced technology, manufacturing process and improved skills to underdeveloped countries.
  • They help in the transfer of capital from countries where it is abundant to where it is scarce.
  • They help in building up knowledge base and development of human resources, (id) They

help in creating large scale employment opportunities by setting up their branches and subsidiaries.

  • The operations of MNCs have a favourable effect on the balance of payments account of the host country.

 

  1. What is trade? Explain the importance of international trade.

Answer:

The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade.

The international trade is important because:

  • It helps in exchange of surplus goods with those of deficit countries through foreign trade.
  • It helps in improving the quality of domestic goods.
  • It contributes to the economic growth of the country by raising income level of the people

and increasing foreign exchange reserves.

  • It enables a country to import advanced technology of other countries to improve its own

production.

 

  1. Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian economy with examples.

Answer:

The impact of globalisation on Indian economy is as follows:

  • It has created competition among producers, both local and foreign, which is advantageous to

the consumers, particularly the well off. Now, there is a greater choice of goods before the consumers.

  • It has enabled many Indian companies to become multi-national companies such as Tate

Motors, Infosys and Ranbaxy.

  • It has created new employment opportunities for companies providing services specially information technology. A lot of services such as data entry, accounting, administrative tasks are done cheaply in India and exported to other countries.
  • New jobs are created in industries such as electronics, cell phones, automobiles and fast food.
  • It had a negative impact on small manufacturers. Due to competition, some industries has been hit hard such as batteries, capacitors, plastic toys, vegetable oil etc. A number of units have shut down and a lot of workers, have become jobless.

 

  1. Describe any five factors that promote the Multinational Corporations (MNCs to set up their production units in a particular place.

Answer:

The factors that MNCs take into consideration to set up their production units in a particular place

are:

  •  where it is close to the markets.
  • where the skilled and unskilled labour at low costs is available.
  • where the favourable government policies looking after their interest are , present.
  • where the other factors of production such as raw materials, water, electricity and transport are available.
  • where there are standard safety measures for assured production.

 

  1. Describe the major problems created by the globalisation for a large number of small producers and workers.

Answer: The major problems created by the globalisation for a large number of small producers and workers are:

  • The small producers or workers either have to compete or perish.
  • Small scale industries like batteries, capacitors, plastic toys etc. have been hit hard due to

global products and have suffered great losses in their businesses.

  • Several small factory units are forced to shut down.
  • Millions of workers have gone jobless and jobs are no longer secure.
  • It has increased income inequalities among various countries.
  • Unorganised sector has expanded. {any five)

 

  1. How are Multinational Corporations (MNCs) controlling and spreading their productions across the world? Explain.

Answer:

The ways in which MNCs controlling and spreading their productions across the world are:

  • By directly setting up factories and offices for production.
  • By setting up production jointly with some of the local companies of other countries.
  • By buying up local companies and then expand production.
  • By placing orders for production with small producers of the countries such as garments,

footwear.

  • By buying mass produced goods of domestic industries and, then sell it under their own brand

name at much higher rates in foreign countries.

 

  1. “Fair globalisation would create opportunities for all and also ensure that benefits of globalisation are shared better.” Support the statement.

Answer:

The government can take the following steps to ensure better sharing benefits of fair

globalisation.

  • The labour laws should be implemented properly and they should get their due rights.
  • The small producers should be supported to improve their performance.
  • It should use trade and investment barriers efficiently.
  • It should negotiate at the WTO for fairer rules.
  • It can also align with other developing countries with similar interests to fight against the

domination of developed countries in the WTO.

 

  1. Explain any three ways in which multinational companies are spreading their production.

OR

How are MNCs spreading their production across countries? Explain with an example. Answer:

Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are spreading their production in different ways. Some of them are:

  • By buying local companies and, then expanding production. For example, Cargill Foods, a very large American MNC, purchased small Indian company, Parakh foods. Cargill Foods is,

now, the largest producer of edible oil in India with a capacity making 5 million pouches daily.

  • By placing orders for production with small producers. Garments, footwears, sports items are examples where production is carried out by small producers for large MNCs around the

world.

  • By producing jointly with some of the local companies. It benefits the local company in two

ways.

  1. A MNC can provide money for additional investments.
  2. A MNC can bring latest technology for production.
  • For example, Ford Motors set up a large plant near Chennai, in collaboration with Mahindra

and Mahindra, a major Indian manufacturer of jeeps and trucks.

 

  1. What is foreign trade? How does it integrate markets? Explain with examples.

OR

How does foreign trade connect the markets of different countries? Explain with example. Answer:

Trade between two countries is called foreign trade. It may take plate through sea, air or land. It creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond domestic markets.

Foreign trade integrates the markets of different countries as:

  • It provides an opportunity for both producers and consumers to reach beyond the markets of

their own country.

  • Producers now compete with markets located in other countries.
  • There is an expansion of choice of goods beyond the domestic market.
  • For example, during the Diwali season, buyers in India have the option of buying either

Indian or Chinese decorative lights and bulbs. The Chinese manufacturers get the opportunity to expand their business.

 

  1. What is globalisation? How does globalisation help in interconnection among different countries? Explain with examples.

Answer: Globalisation: integrating the economy of a country with the economies of other

countries under conditions of free flow of trade, capital and movement of persons across borders.

Globalisation interconnect different countries by:

 

  • Foreign trade. It leads to integration of markets across countries due to which the latest models of goods like digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions etc. are available in one country.
  • Foreign investment. MNCs invest capital in different countries by
  • jointly producing with local companies.
  • buying the local companies.
  • placing orders for production like garments footwear, sports goods etc. with small producers of other countries.

 

  1. How has improvement in technology stimulated the globalisation process? Explain.

Answer: The improvement in technology has stimulated the globalisation process as:

  • There has been many improvements in transport technology in the recent years that have

enabled faster delivery of goods across the world.

  • Development of information technology in the areas of telecommunication like internet has

revolutionised the world.

  • Use of telegraph, mobiles, fax have enabled faster and easier access to information anywhere

at any point of time.

  • All these developments have further decreased the cost of their operations favouring the

consumers around the world.

  • It has opened up horizons for further advancement, research and development of existing

means.

 

  1. How has globalisation benefited India? Explain with five examples.

Answer: The impact of globalisation on India are:

  • It has enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as MNCs such as Tata Motors, Infosys.
  • It has also created new opportunities for companies providing services like information technology.
  • Greater competition among producers has been of special advantage particularly to the well- off sections of consumers in the urban areas. They have greater choice and enjoy improved

quality and lower prices for various products. Thus, they are enjoying a higher standard of living.

  • In these industries and services, new jobs have been created and also the companies supplying raw materials to these industries have prospered.
  • Several of the top Indian companies have been able to benefit from the increased competition. They have invested in new technology and production methods and raised the

standard of their products. Some of them have gained from successful collaboration with foreign companies.

 

  1. How is the Government of India trying to attract more foreign investment? Explain with examples.

Answer: The government of India is trying to attract more foreign investment in the following

ways:

  • Government has adopted the policy of liberalisation and lifted the trade barriers to allow

foreign investment.

  • In recent years, industrial zones called Special Economic Zones are being

set up. These areas have world class facilities such as electricity, water, transport, education and recreational.

  • The companies setting up production units in Special Economic Zones are exempted from various taxes and duties.
  • The government also allowed flexibility in labour laws. The workers in the organised sector are protected by the government laws. The companies in Special Economic Zones instead

 

could ignore many of the laws and engage workers flexibly for shorter periods, when there is a pressure of work.

 

  1. What is the main aim of World Trade Organisation? Explain its functions.

Answer: The main aim of World Trade Organisation is to liberalise international trade. It says that all barriers to foreign trade and investment are harmful. There should be no barriers.

The main functions of World Trade Organisation are:

  • It establishes rules regarding international trade and sees that they are obeyed.
  • It provides a platform to member countries to decide future strategies related to trade.
  • It administers the rules and processes related to dispute settlement.
  • It ensures optimum utilisation of world resources. .
  • It assists international organisations such as IMF and 1BPD for establishing coherence in

Universal Economic Policy determination. \

 

  1. How has globalisation been advantageous to both the producers as well as the consumers in

India? Explain.

Answer:

Advantages of globalisation for consumers:

  • They have greater choice.
  • Better quality of products are available for consumption due to competition.
  • It has reduced the cost of goods and services considerably.

Advantages of globalisation to producers:

  • They now have access to international markets for their products.
  • They have easier access to foreign investment to enhance their production,
  • Collaboration with MNCs have added up their performance and profits.

 

  1. Explain four ways in which globalisation and pressure of competition has changed the lives of workers substantially.

Answer: Globalisation and pressure of competition has affected the workers in following ways:

  • Casual workers are hired oh contract when demand is high and laid off when demand

declines.

  • There is no job security among workers.
  • They have long working hours and work in the night shifts on a regular basis during peak seasons.
  • They are not given any benefits of pension, overtime, medical leaves etc.

 

  1. Explain any three conditions that determine MNCs setting up production in other countries.

Answer: The factors that MNCs take into consideration to set up their production units in a

particular place are:

  • where it is close to the markets.
  • where the skilled and unskilled labour at low costs is available.
  • where the favourable government policies looking after their interest are , present.
  • where the other factors of production such as raw materials, water, electricity and transport are available.
  • where there are standard safety measures for assured production.

 

  1. How do large companies often manipulate the markets? Explain with an example.

Answer: The large companies manipulate the market in the following ways:

  • Sometimes false information is passed on through media and other sources to attract consumers. For example, a company selling powder milk for babies as the most scientific product claiming it to be better than mother’s milk which although was a false claim.
  • Some food items were consumed in India for many years although it is very harmful for the

health of people. But through attractive and convincing advertisements in media, it was able

 

to control the market such as Maggie noddles manufactured by Nestle was found harmful after testing in India in May 2015.

  • They may also hide the essential information about the product like expiry date, contents, terms and conditions etc. to keep the consumers in dark.
  • Sometimes, the expired products are packed in a new packing and again released in the market.
  • It has also been evident that artificial scarcity is created by the producers and the product is hoarded for sale in future at a high price.

 

  1. What has been the impact of globalisation on India? Explain.

Answer: The impact of globalisation on Indian economy is as follows:

  • It has created competition among producers, both local and foreign, which is advantageous to

the consumers, particularly the well off. Now, there is a greater choice of goods before the consumers.

  • It has enabled many Indian companies to become multi-national companies such as Tate

Motors, Infosys and Ranbaxy.

  • It has created new employment opportunities for companies providing services specially information technology. A lot of services such as data entry, accounting, administrative tasks are done cheaply in India and exported to other countries.
  • New jobs are created in industries such as electronics, cell phones, automobiles and fast food.
  • It had a negative impact on small manufacturers. Due to competition, some industries has been hit hard such as batteries, capacitors, plastic toys, vegetable oil etc. A number of units have shut down and a lot of workers, have become jobless.

 

  1. What are the benefits of foreign trade to producers and consumers?

Answer: The benefits of foreign trade to producers and consumers are:

  • It created an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets, i.e., markets of their own countries.
  • It gave consumers a wider choice of good quality goods.
  • It helps every country to make optimum utilisation of its natural resources.
  • It integrates markets and allows international exchange of ideas.
  • It brings in new technology and expertise. Producers use it for production and are able to

compete in the international market. (any three)

 

  1. Explain the role of information technology in globalisation.

Answer: Information and communication technology has stimulated the globalisation process as:

  • In recent years, technology in the areas of computers, telecommunication and internet has been changed rapidly.
  • Telecommunication facilitates including telegraph, telephone, mobile phone, fax are used to contact one another around the world and to get information instantly and to communicate

from remote areas.

  • All this has been facilitated by satellite communication devices.
  • Computers and internet have enabled people to obtain and share information on any subject.

 

  1. How has transportation technology stimulated the globalisation process? Explain with suitable examples.

Answer: Transportation technology has stimulated the globalisation process in the following

ways:

  • Faster trains connecting every nook and corner of a country and faster planes that cover the

distance within a few hours have enabled the faster delivery of goods.

 

  • Improvements done in transportation technology in the past fifty years have also helped in the quick movement of goods. For example, containers carrying goods have led to huge reduction in port handling costs and an increased speed, with which exports can reach markets.
  • Reduced cost of air transport has enabled much greater volumes of goods being transported by

airlines.

 

  1. Explain the role of technology in stimulating globalisation process.

Answer: The improvement in technology has stimulated the globalisation process as:

  • There has been many improvements in transport technology in the recent years that have enabled faster delivery of goods across the world.
  • Development of information technology in the areas of telecommunication like internet has revolutionised the world.
  • Use of telegraph, mobiles, fax have enabled faster and easier access to information anywhere at any point of time.
  • All these developments have further decreased the cost of their operations favouring the consumers around the world.
  • It has opened up horizons for further advancement, research and development of existing means.

 

  1. Explain any four ways by which MNCs exercise control on production.

Answer: Multinational Corporations (MNCs) exercise control on production in the following ways:

  • By setting up their factories or production units close to markets where they can get desired type of skilled or unskilled labour at low cost along with other factors of production.
  • By collaborating with existing local companies of a country.
  • By buying the local companies and then expand or control its production with the help of

modern technology and capital.

  • By placing orders to small producers and selling these products under their own brand name

to the customers worldwide.

 

  1. How is foreign trade inter-connecting the markets in different countries? Explain with examples.

Answer: Foreign trade is the main channel which connects the markets of various countries. It leads to integration of markets across the countries in following ways:

  • It creates opportunities for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets or the markets of their own countries such as Tata Motors and Ranbaxy of India have emerged as multinational corporations.
  • Import of goods from various countries provides choice of goods for consumers beyond the goods that are produced domestically. Availability of foreign goods like television, mobiles etc. has increased the choice of the consumers.
  • Producers of different countries compete with each other although they are thousands of miles away.
  • It results in bringing down the prices of commodities which further leads to increase in production and supply. Thus, people have access to cheap products which were costlier earlier.

 


 

 

CONSUMER RIGHTS

 

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [1 MARK]

 

  1. Name the quasi-judicial machinery, which is set up at the highest level for redressal of consumer disputes.

Answer: National Level Consumer Courts

 

  1. When do we celebrate National Consumer’s Day?

Answer: 24th December

 

  1. Which logo would you like to see for purchasing electrical goods?

Answer: ISI

 

  1. Suppose your parents want to purchase gold jewellery along with you, then which logo will you look for on the jewellery?

Answer: Hallmark

 

  1. Why was the Consumer Protection Act enacted by the Indian Parliament?

Answer: The Consumer Protection Act was enacted to protect the consumers from unscrupulous producers and dishonest traders.

 

  1. Suppose you have to buy a packed bottle for drinking water in your journey. Which logo would you like to see to be sure about its quality?

Answer: Agmark

 

  1. If any damage is done to a consumer by a trader, under which consumer right one can move to consumer court to get compensation.

Answer: Right to Seek Redressal

 

  1. If you are not interested to buy a brush with tooth paste but shopkeeper denied to sell tooth paste only. In this case, which consumer right is being violated by the seller?

Answer: Right to Choose

 

  1. Which logo would you like to see on an electric heater to be sure of its quality?

Answer: ISI

 

  1. Who is a consumer?

Answer. A consumer is a person or group who pays to use the goods or services produced by a

seller for satisfaction of his wants.

 

  1. Who is a producer?

Answer. A producer is a person or group of persons who produce either goods or services or both

by creating utility.

 

  1. What is a market place?

Answer. A market place is an economic system through which different companies compete among one another, to sell their products.

 

  1. Why did consumer movement arise in India?

Answer. Consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair practices were being indulged in by the sellers.

 

  1. What information one should check before buying packed medicines?

Answer. While buying medicines, one should check the information like directions for proper

use, information related to its side effects, risks associated with its usage, manufacturing date and

expiry date.

 

  1. What information one should check before buying any packed food?

Answer. Before buying any packed food, one should check the information related to ingredients

used, price, batch number, manufacturing date, expiry date and address of the manufacturer.

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. How does right to safety help consumers? Explain with an example.

Answer: Right to safety means that we as consumers have the right to be protected against the marketing of goods and delivery of services that are hazardous to life and property. Producers and

manufacturers should adhere to safety norms while manufacturing goods. There are many goods and services, that we purchase require special attention to safety.

For example, pressure cookers have a safety valve, which if defective can cause a serious accident. The manufacturers should ensure high standards and the consumers should read all the

instructions given on the box of the pressure cooker.

 

  1. How does ‘Right to be Informed’ help consumers? Explain with an example.

Answer: According to this right, every consumer has the right to be informed about the

particulars of goods and services that they purchase. It is mandatory for the producers to provide complete information regarding their ingredients, date of manufacture, expiry date etc. to the consumers.

The details given on the packet help the consumers in many ways. Some of them are:

  • If a consumer buys a product and finds it defective within the expiry period, he can ask for its replacement.
  • It someone sells the good at more than the printed price on the packet, then a consumer can protest and ask for an explanation.
  • On medicines, directions for proper use, warnings and information relating to side effects and risks associated with usage are printed so that the consumers can take precautions

accordingly.

 

  1. What is standardization of products? Mention any two organizations responsible for the standardization of products in India.

Answer: Standardization of products means developing quality standards for products that are directly related with the safety, health and well-being of the consumers. This help the consumers

by giving assurance that the products they are buying for consumption are not hazardous for them.

The two organizations responsible for the standardization of products in India are Agmark (for eatables) and ISI (for electrical and electronic goods).

 

  1. Consumers have the right to be informed about the goods and services they purchase.

Explain its three advantages.

Answer: The advantages of the consumer’s right to be informed are:

  • The consumers get complete information about the product or service before making a choice or a decision.
  • The consumers would be able to understand the correct way of handling and using the product as some products need proper care.
  • If the product is not found as per the information provided, it can be replaced well in time, thus avoiding hustle and worry.

 

  1. Explain with examples ‘Right to Information’ to the consumers.

Answer: According to this right, every consumer has the right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase. It is mandatory for the producers to provide

complete information regarding their ingredients, date of manufacture, expiry date etc. to the consumers.

The details given on the packet help the consumers in many ways. Some of them are:

  • If a consumer buys a product and finds it defective within the expiry period, he can ask for its replacement.
  • It someone sells the good at more than the printed price on the packet, then a consumer can protest and ask for an explanation.
  •  On medicines, directions for proper use, warnings and information relating to side effects and risks associated with usage are printed so that the consumers can take precautions accordingly.

 

  1. Explain any three reasons responsible for enacting Consumer Protection Act, 1986 by the

Government of India.

Answer: The reasons for enacting Consumer Protection Act, 1986 by the Government of India

are:

  • There was dissatisfaction among the consumers regarding unfair trade practices being

indulged in by the producers or sellers.

  • There was no legal system available for the protection of consumers from exploitation in the

market place.

  • Rampart food shortages, hoarding, black-marketing and adulteration of food and edible oil

posed a threat to consumers.

 

  1. Explain any three factors that gave birth to the Consumer Movement in India.

Answer: The factors that gave birth to Consumer Movement in India are:

  • There was dissatisfaction among the consumers regarding unfair trade practices being indulged by the producers and sellers.
  • There was no legal system available for the protection of consumers from exploitation in the market place.
  • Rampart food shortages, hoarding, black-marketing and adulteration of food and edible oil posed a threat to the consumers.
  • The consumers were unaware about their rights. So, to educate and make them aware, consumer movement began.

 

  1. “A consumer has the right to get compensation depending on the degree of the damage.” Support this statement with an example.

Answer: Consumers have the right to seek redressal against unfair practices and exploitation. If

any damage is done to a consumer, he or she has the right to get a compensation, depending on the degree of damage. There is need to provide an easy and effective public system by which this can be done.

For example, Pihu had sent a money order to her village for her sister’s marriage. The money did

not reach her sister at the time when she needed it, nor did it reach months later. So, Pihu filed a case in the district level consumer court and practiced her right to seek redressal.

 

  1. Explain the role of three tier quasi-judicial set up for redressal of consumer disputes in

India.

Answer: A three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the district, state and national level, was set up under COPRA, for redressal of consumer disputes in India.

  • At the district level, consumer courts deal with cases involving claims up to 20 lakhs.

 

  • At the state level, consumer courts deal with cases involving claims between 20 lakhs and 1 crore.
  • At the national level, consumer courts deal with cases involving claims exceeding 1 crore. If the case is dismissed at the district level, then the consumer can appeal at the state and then at

the national level, if required.

 

  1. Explain the role of ‘consumer councils’.

Answer:

The Consumer Protection Councils help the consumers in many ways. Some of them are:

  • They guide consumers on how to file a case in consumer courts.
  • They may represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.
  • They create awareness among the people.

 

  1. Explain the circumstances under which markets do not work in a fair manner.

Answer:

Markets do not work in a fair manner when:

  • producers are few and powerful.
  •  consumers purchase in small quantities.
  • consumers are scattered.

 

  1. How do Consumer Protection Councils help consumers? Explain three ways.

Answer:

The Consumer Protection Councils help the consumers in many ways. Some of them are:

  • They guide consumers on how to file a case in consumer courts.
  • They may represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.
  • They create awareness among the people.

 

  1. “There is a great need for acquiring knowledge and skill to become a well informed consumer.” Support the statement.

Answer:

It is true that to be a conscious, well informed and vigilant consumer, there is a great need of acquiring knowledge and skill. A consumer must know how to deal with the shopkeeper while

going to buy commodities. He must check the prices of the commodities written on the products, check the manufacturing date of the products so that the seller cannot cheat him by giving

outdated commodities. He must know how to approach the consumer forum for addressing his grievances against the shopkeeper, if he has been cheated or if any unfair practice have been made

by the shopkeeper.

 

  1. How is consumer redressal process becoming cumbersome expensive and time, consuming?

Explain.

Answer:

Consumer redressal process is becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming

because:

  • Many a times, consumers are required to engage a lawyer, which becomes an expensive

affair.

  • The cases require time for filing and attending court proceedings which may not be possible

for everyone.

  • In most cases, the cash memos are not issued by the producers dr sellers to the consumers. In

that case, proper evidence is not easy to gather and produce in the court.

  • The existing laws on the issue of compensation are not very clear and specific.

 

  1. Explain three factors which gave rise to consumer movement in India.

Answer: The factors that gave birth to Consumer Movement in India are:

 

  • There was dissatisfaction among the consumers regarding unfair trade practices i being indulged by the producers and sellers.
  • There was no legal system available for the protection of consumers from exploitation in the market place.
  • Rampart food shortages, hoarding, black-marketing and adulteration of food and edible oil posed a threat to the consumers.
  • The consumers were unaware about their rights. So, to educate and make them aware, consumer movement began.

 

  1. Why is consumer awareness spreading slowly? Give three reasons.

Answer:

Consumer redressal process is becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming

because:

  • Many a times, consumers are required to engage a lawyer, which becomes an expensive affair.
  • The cases require time for filing and attending court proceedings which may not be possible for everyone.
  • In most cases, the cash memos are not issued by the producers dr sellers to the consumers. In that case, proper evidence is not easy to gather and produce in the court.
  • The existing laws on the issue of compensation are not very clear and specific.

 

  1. Explain three functions of Consumer Protection Councils.

Answer:

The three functions of Consumer Protection Councils are:

  • Writing articles and holding exhibitions to impart knowledge about consumer rights and

redressal.

  • To look for malpractices in the market in the process of buying and selling.
  • Providing legal assistance to consumers by providing aid, legal advice and seeking legal remedy.

 

  1. How did the Consumer Protection Act enhance the powers of the redressal machinery of

India? Explain. Answer:

The Consumer Protection Act enhance the powers of the redressal machinery of India in the following ways:

  • It provides for the establishment of consumer disputes redressal agencies at District, State and

National levels for the protection and promotion of consumer’s interests and to redress their

grievances in a speedy, simple and inexpensive manner.

  • These agencies are required to dispose off each complaint within three months.
  • These courts look into grievances and complaints of the consumers against

the traders and manufacturers and .provide the necessary reliefs and compensation. The

district level court deals with the cases involving claims up to 20 lakhs, the state level court between 20 lakhs to 1 crore and the national level court deals with cases involving claims exceeding 1 crore.

 

  1. “Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful whereas consumers are scattered and purchase in small amount.” Support the statement. Answer:

Markets do not work in a fair manner when:

  • producers are few and powerful.
  • consumers purchase in small quantities.
  • consumers are scattered.

 

  1. How do we participate in the market as producers and consumers? Explain with examples.

Answer: A market has two players, i.e., producer and the consumer. We can participate by being

both producer as well as a consumer. A producer enters the market by producing a good or a service. However, this entry depends on the type of product an individual is willing to produce. For example, a producer starts producing any bathing soap and sells it in the market, then the producer participate as a producer in the market.

A consumer becomes a part of the market by consuming the output that is produced in the market. There is no condition as such on a consumer to be a participant of market. For example, if an individual purchase any commodity/ service from the market, he participates as a consumer in the market.

 

  1. What is Consumer Protection Act, 1986? Mention its advantages to the consumers.

Answer:

Consumer Protection Act, 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted in 1986 to protect the

interest of consumers in India. It makes provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumers’ disputes and for matters connected therewith. Advantages:

  • It allows the consumers to enjoy various consumer rights.
  • It allows redressal of consumer queries.
  • It allows consumers to pressurise the producers as well as government to ensure moral

business conducts.

 

  1. How has three tier quasi-judicial machinery been set up for redressal of consumer disputes?

Explain.

Answer:

  • A three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the district, state and national level, was set up under

COPRA, for redressal of consumer disputes in India.

  • At the district level, consumer courts deal with cases involving claims up to 20 lakhs.
  • At the state level, consumer courts deal with cases involving claims between 20 lakhs and 1 crore.
  • At the national level, consumer courts deal with cases involving claims exceeding 1 crore. If the case is dismissed at the district level, then the consumer can appeal at the state and then at

the national level, if required.

 

  1. Explain any three factors which gave birth to the ‘Consumers movement’ in India.

OR

“The consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumer.” Justify the statement with arguments.

Answer:

The factors that gave birth to Consumer Movement in India are:

  • There was dissatisfaction among the consumers regarding unfair trade practices being indulged by the producers and sellers.
  • There was no legal system available for the protection of consumers from exploitation in the market place.
  • Rampart food shortages, hoarding, black-marketing and adulteration of food and edible oil posed a threat to the consumers.
  • The consumers were unaware about their rights. So, to educate and make them aware, consumer movement began.

 

  1. How did consumer movement originate as a ‘social force’ in India? Explain.

Answer: There are many factors that gave birth to the consumer movement in India. It started as a social force with the need to protect and promote the interests of the consumers against unfair

and unethical trade practices. Extreme food shortages, hoarding, black marketing and adulteration

 

of food led to the consumer movement becoming an “organised arena” in the 1960s. Till the

1970s, consumer organisations were mostly busy writing articles and holding exhibitions. More

recently, there has been an upsurge in the number of consumer groups who have shown concern towards ration shop malpractices and overcrowding of public transport vehicles. In 1986, the Indian government enacted the Consumer Protection Act, also known as COPRA. This was a major step in the consumer movement in India.

 

  1. Explain with an example how one can use the “Right to Seek Redressal” against unfair trade practices and exploitation.

Answer: Consumers have the right to seek redressal against unfair practices and exploitation. If

any damage is done to a consumer, he or she has the right to get a compensation, depending on the degree of damage. There is need to provide an easy and effective public system by which this can be done.

For example, Pihu had sent a money order to her village for her sister’s marriage. The money did

not reach her sister at the time when she needed it, nor did it reach months later. So, Pihu filed a case in the district level consumer court and practised her right to seek redressal.

 

  1. Explain with an example how one can exercise the right to choose.

Answer: According to this right, a consumer has freedom to choose from a variety of products at competitive prices. This implies that the marketers should offer a wide variety of products in

terms of quality, brand, prices, size etc. and allow the consumers to make a choice from amongst these.

For example, a consumer wants to buy a toothbrush but the shopkeeper says that he will sell the toothbrush only if the consumer will buy toothpaste. Such a situation is denial of right to choose.

 

  1. Describe the conditions in which markets do not work in a fair manner.

Answer: Markets do not work in a fair manner when:

  • producers are few and powerful.
  •  consumers purchase in small quantities.
  • consumers are scattered.

 

  1. What precautions do you suggest for a consumer to take while purchasing medicines from the market?

Answer: The precautions should be kept in mind by a consumer while purchasing medicines

from the market are:

  • He should check the expiry date of the medicines before purchasing them.
  • He should check the details given on the packets of the medicines such as directions for use, side effects and risks.
  • He should always ask for cash memos or bills for medicines purchased as it is a proof of purchase.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. How are consumers exploited in the market place? Explain with three examples.

OR

How are consumers exploited in the market place? Explain.

Answer: The factors which cause exploitation of consumers in the market place are:

  • Limited information. For taking a correct decision and choice about a product, a consumer needs full information about the price, quality, durability, composition, date of manufacture and expiry, ingredients etc. In the absence of full information, a consumer may get exploited in an easy way.

 

  • Limited competition. When there is a limited competition with regard to production, i.e., when producers are few and can control and restrict the supply of a product, there is possibility of manipulation of prices.
  • Limited supply. When supply of a good is less than its demand, the prices may go up and

encourage the tendency of hoarding. As a result, the consumer may be exploited.

  • Adulteration. It means mixing or substituting undesirable materials in the food. It causes a

heavy loss to the consumers both monetary and healthwise.

  • Hoarding and black-marketing. Traders hold the stock of essential commodities to create

artificial scarcity in the market, so that they can sell the commodities at higher prices.

  • Under measurement. Traders usually indulge in malpractices like giving under measured

goods and charge for the actual quantity.

  • Substandard goods. In the name of genuine parts or goods, sub-standard or inferior goods

are sold in the market. For example, duplicate medicines can be injurious to the health of a person. Defective electrical items without safety measures can be fatal for the user.

 

  1. Why are rules and regulations required in the market place? Explain.

OR

“Rules and regulations are required for the protection of consumers in the market place.”

Justify the statement with arguments. OR

“Why are rules and regulations required for the protection of the consumers in the marketplace?” Explain.

Answer: Rules and regulations are required for the protection of consumers in the market place due to the following reasons:

  • Sometimes, traders indulge in unfair trade practices such as underweight, undermeasurement, adulteration, hoarding etc.
  • Most of the consumers are unaware of their rights and they are often deceived by the suppliers.
  • Whenever a complaint regarding goods or services is made, the seller tries to shift all the responsibility on the buyer.
  • Sometimes, the sellers make false claims about the durability and quality of their products through advertisements, catchy slogans and jingles.
  • Sometimes, the sellers create artificial scarcity through hoarding and black marketing to sell the goods at higher prices.
  • Sometimes, the sellers indulge in adulteration of goods and provide poor quality goods in order to achieve the goals of profit and growth.

 

  1. “Consumer movement can be effective only with consumers’ active involvement.” Analyse the statement.

Answer: The consumer movement can be effective only with the consumers’ active involvement.

This statement can be analysed giving following arguments.

  • The consumers should be aware of their rights and duties.
  • The consumers should be vigilant in the market against any unethical practice.
  • The consumers should lodge complaints against exploitation.
  • If consumers are actively involved, then producers and companies will also be on their guard and offer better services.
  • The consumers should purchase only standardised products.
  • The consumers should know the legal procedure, i.e., how to get their cases settled in

consumer courts.

  • The consumers should be well informed and avail the remedies available to them against

frauds or any unscrupulous trade practice.

 

  1. Why is there a great need for consumer awareness? Explain any five reasons.

OR

Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market place.’ Support the statement.

Answer: Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market place as:

  • Consumers must be aware of not only the goods and services but also legal measures to

protect themselves.

  • If consumers are actively involved, companies will also be on their guard to provide better

goods and services.

  • Consumers must be aware of anti-social activities like hoarding, black marketing etc.
  • It makes consumer a rational consumer having knowledge of how market works.
  • It enables consumer to be aware of government policies for certification marks such ISI,

Agmark that ensure product quality for consumers.

  • It enables consumer to use Right to Information Act (RTI) to get information

on functioning of government departments

 

  1. How does the Government of India protect the interests of consumers? Explain with five examples.

Answer: The Government of India can protect the interests of the consumers in many ways. Some of them are:

  • It should formulate rules and regulations to protect and safeguard the interest of consumers.
  • It should enforced these rules and regulations on a regular basis, so that producers should

maintain a certain minimum level of quality.

  • A three tier quasi-judicial machinery has been set up at district, state and national level for

redressal of consumer disputes.

  • It has also passed the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 to safeguard the interest of consumers

which provides various rights and responsibilities to consumers.

  • Posters are regularly advertised in the newspapers under the name Jago Grahak Jago through

which the government spreads information. if) Consumer Protection Councils are also working for the welfare and protection of consumer rights. They write articles and hold exhibitions to impart knowledge about consumer rights and consumer problems.

 

  1. Explain why a consumer should learn to be well informed.

Answer: A consumer should learn to be well informed because:

  • A well informed consumer knows how to fight for his rights.
  • A well informed consumer cannot be cheated easily by the shopkeepers, traders etc.
  • Such a consumer will be able to approach institutions for seeking redressal.
  • Consumers will be able to check the provisions made by the government if they are denied

from exercising their rights.

  • A well informed consumer becomes a rational consumer, i.e., he knows how to spend the

money to derive maximum satisfaction out of the products, he buys.

 

 


 

WORK, LIFE AND LEISURE

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. Explain any three problems faced by people who migrated to Bombay in the mid-nineteenth century.

Answer:

The problems faced by migrated people in Bombay in the mid nineteenth century were as follows.

  • Housing: They were forced to live in cheap and unsafe multistoreyed structures called chawls.

More than 70 per cent migrants lived in these thickly-populated chawls. They were overcrowded with no toilets and privacy.

  • Shortage of water and other basic amenities: Water was scarce, which led to daily quarrels at the tap. People had to use streets and neighbourhood for cooking, washing and sleeping.
  • Caste discrimination: Depressed classes faced difficulties in finding house. They were kept out of chawls and had to live in shelters made of sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
  • Fear of spread of diseases: Being overcrowded and built in an unplanned way, there was a constant danger of spread of epidemic diseases like plague and other communicable diseases

in chawls.

 

  1. Why was the land reclamation in Bombay necessary? Mention any two land reclamation projects taken up in Bombay.

Answer:

Being a multi-functional presidency city of British India, Bombay witnessed a huge surge in

migration. To accomodate a large number of people, the expansion of the city was required, which always posed a problem because of the scarcity of land. The only way to solve this

problem was land reclamation. Two land reclamation projects taken up in Bombay in the late 18th century were as follows.

  • Reclamation of the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar Hill to the end of Colaba by

Back Bay Reclamation Company in 1864.

  • Development of dry dock between 1914 and 1918 by Bombay Port Trust, where the excavated earth was used to create Ballard Estate.

 

  1. “The congestion in the nineteenth century industrial city led to a yearning for clean country air.” Explain how the wish of the people fulfilled.

Answer:

The following points sum up how the Londoners got their wish for a clean air fulfilled.

  • Due to the increasing pollution level, Londoners made demands for new ‘lungs’ for the city.

Some attempts were made to bridge the gap between city and countryside through ideas like the Green Belt around London.

  • The notion of the Garden City came into being, which was a pleasant space full of plants and trees, where people would both live and work.
  • Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853 were passed to clear the air.

 

  1. State any three characteristics of the ancient cities.

Answer:

The following were the three characteristics of the ancient cities.

  • Towns and cities, that first appeared along river valleys, such as Ur, Nippur and Mohenjodaro in ancient times, were larger in scale than other human settlements of those times.
  • There were certain conditions needed for the development of ancient cities. It could develop only when an increase in food supplies made it possible to support a wide range of non-food

producers.

 

  • Cites were often the nucleus of political power, administrative network, trade and industry, religious institutions, and knowledge production. It supported variegated social groups such as artisans, merchants and priests.

 

  1. Explain any three features of chawls of Bombay (Mumbai).

Answer:

The following were the three features of chawls of Bombay.

  • Chawls were multi-storeyed structures that had been built from at least the 1860s in the native

parts of the town.

  • Each chawl was divided into smaller one-room tenements, which had no private toilets.
  • Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.

 

  1. Examine the condition of people living in chawls of Bombay.

Answer:

The people living in chawls were living in pitiful condition.

  • Many people lived together in single tenements.
  • Due to closeness of gutters and animal shelters, people had to keep their windows shut even in

humid weather.

  • There were no private toilets or water connections, which often led to quarrels among

residents.

 

  1. Who are philanthropists? Explain any two steps taken to control crime in London in the

1870s.

Answer:

Philanthropists were social workers, who worked for social upliftment and public morality. They

took to donating time and money to fulfill their purpose. The following were the steps taken to control crime in London in the 1870s.

  • Counting of criminal population, keeping a watch on their activities and investigating their way of life
  • Imposing huge penalties and offering work for deserving poor.

 

  1. Explain how the underground railway was able to solve transport problems as well as housing crisis in London in the nineteenth century?

Answer:

The problem of transport and housing crises was solved by underground railway in the following

ways.

  • The London underground railway partially solved the housing crises by carrying large masses

of people to and from the city.

  • Better-planned suburbs and a good railway network enabled a large number of people to live

outside London and travel to work. A large number of houses were built for the working class, most of them were single-family cottages.

  • By 1880, the expanded train service was carrying 40 million passengers a year

 

  1. How did people entertain themselves in the chawls of Bombay?

Answer:

The people in the chawls of Bombay entertained themselves in the following ways.

  • Streets were used for different leisure activities. Magicians, monkey players or acrobats

performed their acts here.

  • People used to exchange news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
  • Liquor shops and akharas too came up where people spent their time.

 

  1. Explain the concept of the ‘Garden City’? Who developed this system in London?

Answer:

The concept of the ‘Garden City’ was introduced to decongest localities in London. It was thought to have more green spaces that would serve as new lungs for the city that had been

choking under pollution and crowd. For this less polluted large block of apartments were to be made to house the growing population in London. A pleasant space, full of plants and trees and

beautiful views, would be developed where people would both live and work. This system was developed by an England based architect and planner Ebenezer Howard.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [5 MARKS]

 

  1. How did the development or expansion of Bombay (Mumbai) differ from that of London?

Give any three points of difference.

OR

Explain the factors which led to the expansion of Bombay.

OR

Explain what led to the expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-19th century.

Answer:

(i) Bombay as capital city : Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1519. after

the Maratha defeat in the Anglo – Maratha war. The city quickly expanded. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of traders and bankers as well as artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay.

(ii) Industrialisation: The establishment of textile mills led to a fresh surge in migration. The

first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were So cotton mills with about 1,46,000 workers. Only about one-fourth of Bombay’s inhabitants between 1881 and

1931 were born in Bombay ,the rest came from outside. Large numbers flowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagiri to work in the Bombay mills.

(iii) Introduction of railways: The first railway was introduced from Bombay to Thane in 1853

It was at the junction head of two major railways. The development of railway encouraged an

even higher scale of migration into the city.

(iv) Famines: Famines in the dry regions of Kutch drove large number of people into Bombay in

1888-89. The flood of migrants in some years created panic and alarm in official circles.

(e) Bombay as a film city: By 1925. Bombay had become India’s film capital. Most of the

people in the film industry were themselves migrants who came from cities like Lahore. Calcutta. Madras, etc

 

  1. ‘The chawls of Bombay were a small cosmopolitan community in themselves’. Explain the statement.

Answer:

The chawls of Bombay were a small cosmopolitan community in themselves because of the following reasons.

Chawls were multi-storeyed low cost buildings that were built during 1860s to house the anxious migrants into the city of Bombay.

These were owned by private landlords who looked for quick ways of making money. Each chawl was divided into smaller one room tenement with no private toilet.

In the middle of the chawl there was an open space for social and cultural gatherings.

People from different social backgrounds lived here. Those who belonged to the depressed classes

found it difficult to find space in these chawls. They lived in shelter along the roads by using corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.

 

  1. Why was the underground rail criticized in London? Explain the reasons.

Answer:

 

The underground railway in London was constructed to solve the housing problem. It was criticized initially because of the following reasons.

  • A newspaper reported the danger to health and asphyxiation (lack of air) and heat in the train compartments.
  • It was referred to as iron monsters, which added to the mess of the city. Charles Dickens and

Son described its destructive process of construction.

  • About 900 houses were destroyed to make two miles of railways.
  • It led to a large-scale displacement of the poor.
  • The underground railway created huge ecological and environmental problem. The process of construction led to large-scale destruction of forests and other natural features.

 

  1. Explain any five social changes that took place in the family life in the 18th century in

London. Answer:

Family became a unit of production and consumption along with political decision making. Functions and shape of the family transformed. Following were the social changes that took place

in the family life in the 18th century in London.

  • Ties between the members of the family began to loosen with marriages breaking down.
  • Women among the lower social classes, who worked for wages, controlled their lives themselves.
  • Spirit of individualism developed among men and women.
  • As women lost their jobs from industries, public spaces became male dominated and domestic

sphere was meant ideal for women.

  • Women faced higher levels of isolation despite being helped by maids.

 

  1. Ties between members of household loosened in Britain in the era of industrialization.

Explain the statement. Answer:

The function and shape of the family was completely transformed by life in the industrial city.

  • Ties between members of households loosened.
  • Among working class, the institution of marriage tended to break down.
  • Women of upper and middles classes in Britain faced increasingly high level of isolation.

Their lives though were made easier by maids who cooked, cleared and cared for young children on low wages.

  • Women who worked had some control over their lives, especially among the lower social classes.
  • When women lost their industrial jobs, conservative people forced them to withdraw into their homes.
  • The 20th century saw another change; the family became the heart of new market of goods, services and of ideas. Families after the war became smaller units.
  • The city encouraged a new spirit of individualism among both men and women, and freedom from the collective values.

 

  1. Describe the features of the big modern city of Calcutta (Kolkata) as viewed by the gods in the novel written by Durgacharan Roy.

Answer:

The following were the features witnessed by the gods in the novel written by Durgacharan Roy.

  • The city was big and modern with improved transportation like train, large ships on rivers,

etc.

  • New forms of production units were belching smoke from the chimneys.
  • Rivers were bounded by bridges. Monuments and a dazzling away of shops were selling a wide range of commodities.
  • There were a lot of opportunities for trade and commerce, education and jobs.

 

  • There was a negative aspect of the cities too. Poverty and poor housing were common with cheats and thieves, making their living by their tricks.
  • The city had a confusing state of caste, religious and gender identities
  • The city also witnessed breaking down of social distinctions, (any five)

 

  1. State the history of air pollution in Calcutta during the nineteenth century.

Answer:

The following points sum up the history of air pollution in Calcutta during the nineteenth century.

  • Calcutta had a long history of air pollution. Its inhabitants inhaled grey smoke, particularly in the winter. Since the city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate thick black smog.
  • High levels of pollution were a consequence of the huge population that depended on dung

and wood as fuel in their daily life. But the main polluters were the industries and establishments that used steam engines run on coal.

  • Colonial authorities were at first intent on clearing the place of miasmas, or harmful vapours, but the railway line, introduced in 1855, brought a dangerous new pollutant into the picture

coal from Raniganj.

  • The high content of ash in Indian coal was a problem. Many pleas were made to banish the

dirty mills from the city, with no effect.

  • However, in 1863, Calcutta became the first Indian city to get smoke nuisance legislation.

 

  1. Explain the changes in the work available to women in London during the 19th and 20th century.

Answer:

The following were the changes in the work available to women in London during the 19th and

20th century.

  • Factories employed large numbers of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
  • With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs and were forced to work within households.
  • The 1861 census recorded a quarter of a million domestic servants in London, of whom the vast majority were women, many of them recent migrants.
  • A large number of women used their homes to increase family income by taking in lodgers or through activities like tailoring, washing and matchbox making.
  • There was a change once again in the twentieth century. As women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.

 

  1. How was the condition of urban family transformed by the 20th century?

Answer:

The condition of urban family transformed in the following ways.

  • By the twentieth century, the urban family had been transformed once again due to First

World War. Women played an important part in this.

  • This transformation came into being partly by the experience of the valuable wartime work done by women, who were employed in large numbers to meet war demands.
  • The family now consisted of much smaller units and helped each other in the processes of production.
  • Due to these developments, the family became the heart of a new market. It propelled the production of goods and services, and ideas.
  • The ties between the members of households loosened and institution of marriage broke down.

 

  1. How did the city development occur at the cost of ecology and environment?

Answer:

The city development occurred at the cost of ecology and environment in the following ways.

  • Growing demands for factories, housing, etc. led to the destruction of natural fractures like

countryside and forests.

  • Large quantities of refuse and waste from homes polluted air and water.
  • Widespread use of coal and wood in homes raised serious environmental issues.
  • In industrial cities, black smoke from chimneys turned the skies grey and vegetation degraded.
  • Excessive noise from industries and railways became a feature of urban life.

 

  1. Describe in brief the development of Bombay (Mumbai) as the Prime City of India.

Answer:

In the seventeenth century, Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese control. It passed into British hands after the marriage of Britain’s King Charles II to the Portuguese

Princess.

  • It became a prominent base for East India Company after it had shifted from Surat. It became

a major cotton textile outlet.

  • Later, it began functioning as a port, which dealt with raw materials like cotton and opium.
  • After the Anglo-Maratha war and the defeat of Marathas, it became the capital of Bombay

Presidency in 1819.

  • The city expanded quickly. As trade grew, communities like traders, bankers, artisans and shopkeepers settled in Bombay.
  • The establishment of textile mills and migration of people made it a prime city of India.

 

  1. Mention the major characteristics of an ancient town.

Answer. (i) The towns and the Cities that first appeared along the river valleys like Ur and

Mohenjodaro were larger in scale than other human settlements.

(ii) These cities were the centres of political power, administrative network, trade and industry,

religious institutions and intellectual activities.

(iii) These cities supported various social group such as artisans, merchant; and priests

(iv) These cities varied greatly in size and complexity. Some were metropolises and oilier; smaller urban centres.

(v) Industrialisation played an important role in the expansion of cities.

 

  1. Explain with examples how industrialisation has changed the form of urbanisation In

England in the modem period.

Answer. (i)Towns and Cities that first appeared along river valleys, such as Ur. Nippur and

Mohenjodaro. were larger in scale than other human settlements.

(ii) The ancient cities could develop only when an increase in food supplies made it possible to support A wide range of non-food producers.

(iii) The cities were often the centre; of political power, administrative networks, trade and industry, religious institutions, and intellectual activity, and supported various social groups such

as artisans, merchants and priests. But the industrialisation changed the form of urbanisation. The modern towns like London. Leeds. Manchester developed because they attracted large number of

workers to the textile mills.

(iv) The city of London became a powerful magnet for migrant populations, even though it did

not hove large factories.

 

  1. What did historian Gareth Stedman Jones say about the ‘City of London ?

Answer. (i) London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers.

(ii) It was a city of small masters and skilled artisans.

(in) It was a city of growing number of semi skilled and sweated out workers, of soldiers and

servants, of casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.

 

(iv)Apart from the London dockyards, five major types of industries that employed large number of people were : Clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationery and precision products such as surgical instruments, watches and objects of precious metal.

(v) During the Fire World War. London began manufacturing motor care and electrical goods and the number of large factories increased until they accounted for nearly one- third of all jobs in the city.

 

  1. Explain the rise of London as a modem city.

OR

Explain the expansion of London over nineteenth century. OR

Explain any three reasons for which the population of London expanded during the 19th century.

Answer.(i)By 1750, one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London. It was a colossal city with a population of about 6,75,000.

(ii)Over the nineteenth century. London continued to expand Its population multiplied fourfold in the 70 years between 1810 and I860, increasing from 1 million to about 4 million.

(iii) The city of London was a powerful magnet for migrant populations, even though it did not have large factories.

(iv) The nineteenth century London, was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi skilled and sweated out workers, of soldiers and

servants, of casual labourers, street-sellers and beggars.

(v) During the First World War (1914-18). London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical

goods, and the number of large factories increased until they accounted for nearly one-third of all

Jobs in the city.

 

  1. Describe three main features of Charles Booth’s first social survey of low skilled London workers.

Answer. (i) Charles Booth conducted the first social survey of low-skilled London workers the

East End of London. He found that about 1 million Londoners i.e. about one-fifth of the population of London at the time, were very poor.

(ii) These poor people were expected to live only upto an average age of 29 in comparison to the average life expectancy of 55 among the gentry and middle classes.

(iii) These people were more than likely to die in a workhouse, hospital or lunatic asylum. (iv) He concluded that London needed the rebuilding of at least 4,00,000 rooms to house its

poorest citizens.

(v) For a while the better-off city dwellers continued to demand that slums simply be cleared

away. But gradually, a large number of people began to recognise the need for housing for the poor.

 

  1. Explain any five steps taken to clean up London in the 19th century.

Answer. (i) Housing problem: The most important problem of London was housing the migrants. To house the new migrants and workers large block of apartments were built.

(ii) Principle of Garden City and Green Belt: Architect and planner Ebenezer Howard developed the principle of the Garden city, a pleasant space full of plants and trees, where people

would both live ar.c work. Many architects also supported the idea of Green Belt around London

(iii) Housing and British government: Between the two World Wars (1919-391 the

responsibility for housing the working classes was accepted by the British state, and a million houses, most of them single – family- cottages. were built by local authorities. Meanwhile, the City had extended beyond the range where people could walk to work, and the development of suburbs made new forms of mass transport absolutely necessary.

(iv) New transport system: The London underground railway was built to carry- people to arid

 

from the city. As a result the population of the city became more dispersed.

(v) Control over Criminalisation: To check the growth of criminalization, the population of

criminals was counted, their activities ware watched, and their ways of life were investigated. In an attempt to discipline the population, the authorities imposed high penalties for crime and offered work to those who were considered the deserving poor.

 

  1. What was the tradition of London Season? Explain different forms of entertainment which came up in 19th century England to provide leisure activities for the people?

OR

What were the sources of leisure for the London city life?

OR

What forms of entertainment came up in the 19th century in England to provide leisure

activities ? OR

How did the people entertain themselves in their leisure time in urban Britain in the 19th century ?

OR

How did the people of all classes entertain themselves in their leisure time in Urban Britain

after industrialisation? Answer:

(i) London Season : For wealthy Britishers there had long been an annual ‘London Season. Several cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre and the classical music performances were

organised for an elite group of 300-400 families in the late eighteenth century.

(ii) Pleasure gardens: Pleasure gardens came in the 19th century to provide facilities for sports,

entertainment and refreshments for the well-to-do.

(iii) Pubs for working class: Working classes met in pubs to have a drink: exchange news and

sometimes, also to organise for political action.

(iii) Libraries and museums: Libraries, art galleries and museums were established in the

nineteenth century to provide people with a sense of history and pride in the achievements of the

British.

(iv) Music halls and cinemas: Music hails were popular among the lower classes and, by the early twentieth century, cinema became the great mass entertainment for the mixed audiences

(vi) Beaches : British industrial workers were increasingly encouraged to spend their holidays by the sea. so as to derive the benefits of the sun and the bracing winds

 

 


 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants?

Answer: Following are the points of distinction:

(a) An integrated steel plant is larger than mini steel plant.

(b) Mini steel plant uses steel scrap and sponge iron while integrated steel plant use basic raw materials, i.e. iron ore for making steel.

(c) Mini steel plant produces mild and alloy steel while integrated steel plant produces only steel.

 

  1. Why are we not able to perform to our full potential in the iron and steel industry? Explain any three reasons.

OR

Describe the three major problems faced by iron and steel industry in India.

OR

Explain any three problems faced by Iron and Steel Industry in India.

Answer: Though India is an important producer of iron and steel, we are not able to perform to our full potential because of the following reasons:

  • High cost and limited availability of coking coal.
  • Labour engaged in production has low productivity.
  • Irregular supply of electricity add up to its problems of production.
  • Technological development in iron and steel industries is less.
  • Resource allocation for research and development in production of steel are comparatively very less.

 

  1. Explain any three characteristics of the chemical industry of India.

Answer: The characteristics of chemical industries of India are as follows:

  • Chemical industries in India are fast growing and diversifying.
  • It contributes 3% of GDP approximately.
  • It is 3rd largest in Asia and occupies the 12th place in the world in the terms of size.
  • It contains both large scale and small scale manufacturing units.
  •  There has been a rapid growth in the manufacture of organic and inorganic chemicals.
  • Inorganic chemical industry is more widespread while organic chemical industry is located near oil refineries or petro-chemical plants.

 

  1. Explain three phases in which treatment of industrial effluents can be done.

Answer: Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in the following ways:

  • Primary treatment by mechanical means like screening, grinding, flocculation and

sedimentation.

  • Secondary treatment by biological process.
  • Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. Recycling of water is also included in the tertiary treatment.

 

  1. Why was cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years? Explain any three reasons.

OR

State the reasons for the location of Cotton Textile Mills in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Answer: The cotton textile industry was mainly concentrated in the cotton growing areas because of the following reasons:

  • Abundant availability of raw cotton due to favourable climate and presence of black soil.

 

  • Huge market for cotton textile in and around Mumbai.
  • Well-developed means of transport including the port facilities in Mumbai.
  • Cheap labour from the adjoining areas.
  • Mild and moist climate is favourable for spinning the cotton yarn.

 

  1. Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to concentrate in the southern and western states of India? Explain any three reasons.

Answer: In recent years, there is a tendency among the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the

southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra because of the following reasons:

  • The sugarcane produced here has a higher sucrose content, thus yields greater quantity of

sugar.

  • The cooler climate here ensures longer crusting season as it prevents drying of cane.
  • Sugar mills are best suited for the cooperatives that are more successful in these states.

 

  1. Why is iron and steel industry called the basic industry? Explain any three reasons.

Answer: Iron and steel industry is called the basic industry because:

  • All other industries – heavy medium and light, depend on it for their machinery.
  • Steel is needed to manufacture engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical,

telephonic scientific equipments and a number of other consumer goods.

  • Production and consumption of steel is regarded as the index of country’s development.

Today with 32.8 million tons of steel production, India ranks 9th among the world under steel producers.

 

  1. Explain with examples how industries have given a boost to agriculture.

Answer: The economic strength of the country depends upon the development of manufacturing industries. Manufacturing industries give major boost to agriculture in the following ways.

  • Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, but also reduces the dependence of people on agricultural income by providing jobs in secondary and tertiary

sectors.

  • Agro industries boost agriculture by increasing its productivity. They depend on raw

materials from agricultural sector.

  • The industries sell their products like irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides,

machines and tools to the farmers. The manufacturing industries thus make production process efficient.

  • Industries boost agriculture by transporting the goods produced to various markets.

 

  1. How do industrial units pollute air in India? Explain any four points.

Answer: Industries cause different types of pollution—land, air and water.

  • Air pollution is caused by the release of undesirable gases and smoke like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide.
  • Air-borne particulate materials like dust, sprays, mist and smoke cause air pollution.
  • Smoke is emitted from chemical and paper mills, brick kilns, refineries, smelting plants.
  • Burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories which do not follow pollution norms. Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects.
  • Air pollution adversely affects human health, plants and animals. In human beings, air

pollution can cause respiratory problems. Smog in the atmosphere cause respiratory problems.

 

  1. How is land degraded by industries? Explain any two methods to control land degradation caused by industries.

Answer: Industries degrade the land in the following ways:

  • Wastes like glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage makes the soil useless.

 

  •  Mineral processing like grinding limestone for cement industry generates huge amount of dust that settles down on land. It makes land unfit for cultivation.
  • Large scale deforestation for setting up production units turns land as wasteland.
  • Construction of roads, housing complexes also degrades land.

The following are the methods that can control land degradation caused by industries.

  • Control on mining and quarrying activities.
  • Proper discharge of industrial waste and effluents.

 

  1. How does textile industry occupy a unique position in Indian economy? Explain giving any three points.

Answer: Textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy because:

  • It contributes 14% of industrial production.
  • It has generated employment to 35 million people directly which is the second largest next to agriculture.
  • It has contributed to 24.6% of foreign exchange earnings.
  • It contributes to 4% of GDP.
  • It is the only industry in Indian which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.

 

  1. The sugar mills are shifting towards southern and western states of India.” Support the statement giving three reasons.

Answer: In recent years, there is a tendency among the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the

southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra because of the following reasons:

  • The sugarcane produced here has a higher sucrose content, thus yields greater quantity of

sugar.

  • The cooler climate here ensures longer crusting season as it prevents drying of cane.
  • Sugar mills are best suited for the cooperatives that are more successful in these states.

 

  1. Explain any three objectives of the ‘National Jute Policy 2005’.

Answer: In 2005, the National Jute Policy was adopted with the aim of:

  • Increasing productivity
  • Growing better quality of jute
  • Higher yield per hectare and better price for jute goods

 

  1. Why is India not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production? Explain any three reasons.

Answer: Though India is an important producer of iron and steel, we are not able to perform to our full potential because of the following reasons:

  • High cost and limited availability of coking coal.
  • Labour engaged in production has low productivity.
  • Irregular supply of electricity add up to its problems of production.
  • Technological development in iron and steel industries is less.
  • Resource allocation for research and development in production of steel are comparatively very less.

 

  1. Classify industries into two categories on the basis of source of raw material used. Mention two features of each category.

Answer: On the basis of sources of raw material used, industries are classified into:

  • Agro based industries: These are dependent on raw material produced in the agricultural sector. These industries are labour intensive.
  • Mineral based: These industries produce goods which are used in other industries. These industries are capital intensive.

 

  1. Classify industries on the basis of capital investment into two categories. Mention two features of each category.

Answer: On the basis of the capital investment industries are classified into:

  • Small-scale industry: The maximum investment allowed is ? 1 crore. They produce light

consumer goods like fans.

  • Large-scale industry: If investment is more than one crore on any industry then it is known

as large scale industry. They produce durable goods.

 

  1. Classify industries on the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods into two categories. Mention any two features of each category

Answer: On the basis of bulk and weight of raw materials and finished goods, industries can be classified into:

  • Heavy industry such as iron and steel.
  • Light industries that use light raw-materials and produce light goods such as electrical

industries.

The two features of heavy industries are:

  • They produce those goods which are used by other industries.
  • They satisfy our wants indirectly.

The two features of light industries are:

  • They produce consumer goods like electrical bulbs, sewings machines etc.
  • They produce goods which satisfy our wants indirectly, e.g. fuse wires.

 

  1. ‘Environmental degradation has been everywhere.’ Explain any three values that can help to prevent environmental degradation.

Answer: Following values can be adopted to prevent environmental degradation.

  • Proper water management: Stress on recycling and reuse of water and proper treatment of

discharged water.

  • Control air pollution: Spread awareness to install electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters in

factories. Encourage use of oil and gas instead of coal.

  • Educate people for proper management of solid waste. Separate biodegradable and non-

biodegradable waste and dispose accordingly. Non-biodegradable waste can be recycled and reused.

 

  1. Classify industries on the basis of capital investment. How are they different from one another? Explain with examples.

Answer: On the basis of capital investment, the industries are classified into small scale industry

and large scale industry.

  • The maximum investment in small scale industry is upto Rs. 1 crore, e.g., toy industry.
  • If the investment is more than one crore rupees, then it is known as large scale industry, e.g., iron and steel industry.

 

  1. “The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain”. Justify the statement.

OR

“Textile industry occupies a unique position in Indian economy.” Support the statement with appropriate arguments.

Answer: The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-relaint and complete in the value chain i.e. from raw materials to the highest value added products.

The statement can be justified as follows:

  • Textile industry is dependent on agriculture and provides jobs to farmers, cotton boll pluckers

and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dying, packaging, tailoring and sewing. The industry by creating demand support industries like dyeing.

 

  • It contributes significantly to industrial production. India has world-class production in spinning and capable of using all the fibers that are produced.
  • Textile industry has been a major foreign exchange earner with increase in foreign trade across the world.
  • It contributes significantly to the National GDP.

 

  1. Classify industries on the basis of source of raw material. How are they different from each other?

Answer: On the basis of the sources of raw materials used industries are classified into agro- based industries eg cotton, silk, rubber, tea etc. and mineral based industries, e.g., iron and steel,

cement etc.

They are different from each other in the following ways:

  • Agro based industries are based on agricultural raw materials, e.g. cotton, wool, sugarcane etc.

Mineral based industries use minerals and metals as raw materials e.g. iron ore, bauxite etc.

  • Agro based industries depend on manufacturing industries for machinery, tools and implements. On the other hand, mineral based industries feed manufacturing industries

 

  1. Suggest any three steps to minimise the environmental degradation caused by the industrial development in India.

Answer: Environmental degradation can be minimised by

  • Proper fuel selection and utilisation, e.g., CNG should be used in automobiles instead of diesel or petrol.
  • Equipments to control aerosol emissions like inertial seprators, filters, precipitators and scrubbers should be used.
  • Smoke can be prevented by the use of oil instead of coal in industries.

 

  1. India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential”. Suggest and explain any three measures to get full potential. Answer: The following measures can enable us to perform to our full potential:
  • Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment can encourage our entrepreneurs to boost

production.

  • Resources need to be allocated for research and development to add up steel production.
  • Apart from this regular supply of coking coal and electricity has to be dealt with.
  • Productivity of labour needs to be increased through proper training.
  • Efficient system of roadways and railways has to be maintained for quick delivery of raw material and finished goods.
  • Moreover domestic demand of iron and steel has to be increased

 

  1. Classify industries on the basis of their main role. How are they different from each other?

Answer: According to their main role the industries are classified as:

  • Basic or key industries. These industries supply their raw materials to manufacture other goods, e.g., iron and steel, copper smelting etc.
  • Consumer industries. These industries produce goods for direct consumption by consumers, e.g., sugar, fans paper, toothpaste, etc.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. “The economic strength of the country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries”. Support the statement with arguments.

Answer: The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.

  • Industries create a variety of goods and thus reduce the dependence of people on agriculture and contributes to modernisation of agriculture.

 

  • Industrial development helps to reduce unemployment and poverty levels by initiating income and high standard of living.
  • Export of manufactured goods add value to the economy. It expands trade and commerce and brings to foreign exchange.
  • Industries utilise primary materials and convert them into articles of utility, thus adding value to the raw materials.
  • Countries that transform their raw material into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in diversifying its manufacturing industries

 

  1. Why are sugar mills concentrated in sugarcane producing areas? Explain any three problems faced by sugar industry in India.

Answer: The sugar industries are concentrated in the sugar producing areas because the raw

materials (sugarcane) used by this industry is bulky. To reduce the cost of transporting sugarcane to sugar industries, they are concentrated in sugarcane producing areas.

The three problems faced by the sugar industry in India are:

  • Old and inefficient methods of production
  • Delay in transporting sugarcane to the factories
  • The need to make maximum use of bags.
  • Above all seasonal nature of the industry is also a major issue

 

  1. Explain any five factors affecting the location of an industry.

OR

Describe any three factors that control industrial location. Answer: The following factors affect the location of an industry:

  • Availability of raw materials: Close proximity to raw material, regular supply at cheap cost are of utmost significance, e.g., concentration of heavy industries in Chattisgarh.
  • Labour: Modern industry requires both skilled and unskilled labour at low cost. It also determines the location of industry, e.g., cotton textile industry in Maharashtra.
  • Capital: Industries are capital intensive. Banks and other financial institutions, insurance etc. play an important role in setting up production units.
  • Power: All production units depend on one or other sources of power like coal, oil, gas etc.

Regular and cheap supply of power is required to keep industries operational, e.g., iron and

steel industries near Raniganj and Jharia coal fields.

  • Market: Goods manufactured need to be sold in the market to maintain the demand and

supply.

 

  1. Why was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years? Explain.

Answer: The cotton textile industry was mainly concentrated in the cotton growing areas because of the following reasons:

  • Abundant availability of raw cotton due to favourable climate and presence of black soil.
  • Huge market for cotton textile in and around Mumbai.
  • Well-developed means of transport including the port facilities in Mumbai.
  • Cheap labour from the adjoining areas.
  • Mild and moist climate is favourable for spinning the cotton yarn.

 

  1. Describe three major problems faced by the weaving and processing sectors in cotton textile industry.

OR

Describe any three major problems faced by cotton textile industry in India.

Answer: The three major problems faced by the weaving and processing sectors in cotton textile

industry are:

 

  • Most of the production is carried out in fragmented small units.
  • Power supply is erratic in nature.
  • Machinery used by the weavers is outdated.
  • The labour has low productivity.
  • Textile industry faces stiff competition from synthetic fibre industry.
  • Much of the high quality yarn is not used by our weavers as it is exported.

 

  1. Explain the pro-active approach adopted by the National Thermal Power Corporation

(NTPC) for preserving the natural environment and resources

OR

What steps have been taken by NTPC towards environmental protection?

Answer: NTPC has a pro-active approach for preserving the natural environment and resources

like water, oil and gas in places where it is setting up power plants. The approaches are as follows:

  • Optimum utilisation of equipment by adopting latest techniques and upgra- dation of existing equipment.
  • Minimising waste generation by maximising the utilisation.
  • Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance.
  • Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
  • Ecological monitoring, reviews and on-line database management for all its power stations.

 

  1. What is manufacturing sector? Describe the four types of manufacturing sectors on the basis of ownership.

Answer: Manufacturing sector refers to the secondary sector of the economy deals with production of goods in large quantities with the help of machine, which converts the raw

materials into valuable products. On the basis of ownership, manufacturing is classified into four types:

  • Public sector: Public sector industries are owned and run by government agencies like BHEL, SAIL etc.
  • Private sector: Private sector industries are owned and run by individuals or a group of individuals. Example: TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd.
  • Joint sector: Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Example: OIL (Oil India Limited) is jointly owned by private and public sector.
  • Cooperative sector: Cooperative sector industries are owned and run by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both or cooperative societies who pool their resources.

They share the profit or loss proportionately, for example, sugar mills, coir industry and handloom textiles.

 

  1. Why are most of the jute mills located on the banks of the River Hugli? Explain

OR

Explain any three factors responsible for the concentration of jute industry in Hugli basin.

OR

Describe any five factors responsible for the concentration of jute mills along the banks of

the Hugli river.

Answer: The five factors responsible for the location of jute mills along the Hugli basin are:

  • Proximity or nearness to the jute producing areas.
  • Inexpensive water transport.
  • Good network of roadways, railways and waterways which helps in the movement of raw material to the mills.
  • Availability of abundant water for processing of raw jute.
  • Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.

 

  • Kolkata being a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

 

  1. Describe any five factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industry in and around Chotanagpur Plateau region.

OR

Why has the ‘Chotanagpur Plateau Region’ the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Analyse the reasons

Answer: Chotanagpur region is the hub of many iron and steel plants because:

  • Iron and steel industry requires iron ore, coal, limestone and manganese which are available in

close proximity.

  • Good network of roads and railway facilitates the movement of raw materials to iron and steel

plants.

  • Rivers provide the cheapest means of inland water transport for iron and steel goods.
  • Nearness to the city of Kolkata provides huge market, banking, insurance and financial services for iron and steel plants.
  • Availability of cheap labour from Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhatttisgarh.

Hence due to these locational advantages iron and steel plants like Jamshedpur, Durgapur,

Burnpur, Bokaro and Rourkela are confined to the Chotanagpur region

 

  1. ‘Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development’. Examine the statement.

Answer: Production and consumption of steel is regarded as the index of a country’s development because of the following reasons:

  • The production and consumption of iron and steel reflects the level of industrialisation and economic development of a country.
  • All the other industries depend on it for their machinery. It provides raw material for making industrial machinery, electrical machinery, defence equipments, bridges, dams, shops, houses,

etc.

  • Vehicles carrying goods from one place to another are also made up of steel. It is because of

these vehicles that our goods are transported from one place to another.

  • Steel is required to manufacture a variety of consumer goods, like bicycles, fans, furniture,

tractors, etc.

  • It is the basic unit of economy. All buildings and infrastructures are constructed using iron

and steel.

 

  1. Explain any five measures to control industrial pollution in India.

Answer: Industries are responsible for four kinds of pollution-air, water, land and noise

pollution. Industrial pollution can be controlled by:

  • Industries should be set up in distant areas away from human settlements.
  • Minimise the use of water processing through reusing and recycling.
  • Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
  • Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators. Smoke can be reduced in factories by using gas or oil instead of coal.
  • Machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.

 

  1. How do industries pollute environment? Explain with five examples.

Answer: Industries pollute the environment in many ways. They cause pollution in four ways-air, water, land and noise.

  • Water pollution is caused by the discharge of industrial effluents into the water bodies with treating it.

 

  • Dumping of wastes, harmful chemicals and industrial effluents e.g. packaging, and garbage makes soil useless. It also results in contamination of groundwater through seepage of rainwater.
  • Air pollution is caused by release of undesirable gases and smoke like sulphur dioxide, carbon

monoxide, air-borne particulate materials like dust, sprays, mist and smoke. Smoke is emitted from paper mills, burning of fossil fuels, smelting plants etc.

  • Factory equipments, generators, saws cause noise pollution.
  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained

into rivers and ponds before cooling.

 

  1. “Manufacturing industry is considered the backbone of economic development of India.” Give three reasons.

OR

Examine the contribution of manufacturing industry to national economy.

Answer: Manufacturing sector refers to the secondary sector of the economy which deals with production of goods in large quantities with the help of machines, where raw materials are

transformed into more valuable products. Manufacturing is considered as the backbone of economic development because:

  • Manufacturing has contributed to modernisation of agriculture and reduced the dependency on agriculture by providing jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • It has helped in reducing the poverty and unemployment and aimed at reducing the regional disparities by setting up of industries in rural, backward and tribal areas.
  • Export of industrial goods contributed to valuable foreign exchange earnings.
  • It has added value to raw materials by converting them into finished goods.
  • The prosperity of a nation depends upon the development and diversification of manufacturing. Thus, it has not only made India self-sufficient but more competitive in terms of international market.
  • It brings down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  • Industry sector contributes substantially to GDP.

 

  1. “Agriculture and industry are complementary to each other.” Support the statement giving three points.

Answer: Agriculture and manufacturing industries have a close relationship. Each of them complement each other in the following ways:

  • Each of them serves as market for goods produced by the other and in the process raises demand for each other’s goods. For example, the agro- based industries, like textiles, sugar,

etc., depend upon agriculture for raw materials.

  • These industries have given a major boost to agriculture by raising their demand and hence,

productivity. Manufacturing industries sell the products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, agricultural machineries and tools, etc., to the farmers.

  • Agriculture serves as their market and effects their development. These inputs from industries

assist agriculturists in increasing productivity as well as have made the production processes very efficient.

  • Manufacturing industries not only help in modernizing agriculture, they also reduce the dependency of people on agricultural sector, by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary

sector.

  • Agro-based industries in India have given boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.

 

  1. What is the main reason of water pollution? How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced? Suggest three ways.

OR

 

How do industries cause water pollution in India? Explain any four points. Answer:

  • Water pollution is caused by the discharge of industrial effluents into the water bodies.(b) Thermal
  • pollution occurs when hot water from factories and thermal power plant is drained into rivers and ponds, before cooling. Aquatic life is effected by it.
  • Rainwater percolates into the soil carrying pollutants to the ground and leading to contamination of ground water.
  • The major industries causing water pollution are paper pulp, textile, chemical, tanneries, petroleum, refineries and electroplating industries give out dyes, detergent, acids, salts, heavy

metals like lead, synthetic chemicals, plastics and rubber. Fly ash phospo-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the solid wastes discharged into the water.

Measures to control water pollution are:

  • Minimising the use of water by reusing or recycling it in two or more stages.
  • Harvesting of rainwater to meet water needs.
  • Treatment of industrial effluents and hot water before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
  •  Overdrawing of ground water reserves by industries should be minimised.

 

 

 

MAP QUESTIONS

 

Ø On the given outline map of India locate and label the following with appropriate symbols. (i) Durgapur-Iron and Steel Plant

(ii) Bhilai-Iron and steel Plant

(iit) Rourkela-Iron and Steel Plant

(iv) Gandhinagar Software Technology Park

(v) Coimbatore-Cotton textile centre

(vi) Srinagar-Woollen industrial centre (vii) Murshidabad-A silk textile centre (viii) Bhadrawati-Iron and Steel Plant (ix) Salem-Iron and Steel Plant

(x) Mohali-Software Technology Park (xi)  Bokaro-Iron and Steel Industry (xii) Kanpur-Cotton Textile Industry (xiii) Madurai-Cotton Textile Industry

(xiv) Bhubaneshwar-Software Technology Park (JCV) (xv) Indore-Software Technology Park

(xvi)  Jaipur-Software Technology Park

 

 

 

Ø Some features are marked on the given political map of India. Identify them with the help of following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the maps.

(i)  Software Technology Park

(ii) Silk Textile Industry

(iii) Software Technology Park

 

 

 

 

 

 


GENDER, RELIGION AND CASTE

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. What is casteism ? How is casteism in India different as compared to other societies ?

OR

Describe any five features of the caste system prevailing in India.

Ans. (i) Organisation of people into social groups for the purpose of marriage, work and diet is known as the caste system.

(ii) The social structure of India is based upon the caste system. All societies have some kind of social inequality and some form of division of labour, but the Indian caste system is an extreme

form of division of labour based on birth.

(iii) Although in most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another, but in

India, it is different from other societies as in this system hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.

(iv) The Indian caste system was very rigid. Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practiced the same or similar occupation, married within the caste

grouf), and did not eat with members from other caste groups.

(v) Indian caste system continues to be closely linked to economic status.

 

  1. Mention any positive role of caste in politics.

OR

Describe the positive and negative aspects of relationship between caste and politics

Ans. (i) In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power.

(ii) In this sense, caste politics has helped people from the Dalits and the OBC castes to gain better access to decision making.

(iii) Several political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for the end of discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land,

resources and opportunities. Negative :

(i) It disrupts social harmony.

(ii) It can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, corruption, etc.

 

  1. Why is the idea of communal politics fundamentally flawed ?

Ans. Most of these beliefs are fundamentally not true. People of one religion do not have the same interests and aspirations in most of the contexts. Every individual has his/her own choices,

roles, positions and identities. There are many voices inside every community. All these voices have a right to be heard. Therefore, any attempt to bring all followers of one religion together in

contexts other than religion is bound to suppress many voices within that community.

 

  1. What are Feminist Movements? What were their major demands ?

OR

What was the Feminist Movement? Explain the political demands of the Feminist

Movement in India.

Ans. These are the movements which are organised by various women organisations to create

equality for women in personal and family life.

(i) These feminist movements demand equal rights for women in all spheres of life.

(ii) There were agitations in different countries for the extension of voting rights to women. (iii) The agitations demanded enhancing the political and legal status of women.

(iv) The movements also demanded in improving the educational and career opportunities for the women.

 

  1. Explain the relationship between religion and politics.

OR

How are religious differences expressed in politics ?

Ans. (i) Views of Gandhiji : Gandhiji used to say that religion can never be separated from politics. What he meant by religion was not any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam, but the

moral values that are there in all religions. According to him, politics must be guided by ethics drawn from all religions.

(ii) Views of Human rights groups : Human rights groups in our country have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities. They have

demanded that the government should take special steps to protect religious minorities.

(iii) Women’s Movements : Women’s movements have argued that family laws of all religions

discriminate against women. So they have demanded that the government should change these laws to make them more equitable.

 

  1. Name the movements which agitate for women’s rights. How have these movements helped in improving women’s conditions ?

Ans. Feminist Movements.

(i) Political expression of gender division and political mobilisation on this question helped to improve the women’s role in public life.

(ii) Now, women are working in occupations such as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, managers, and college and university teachers which were earlier not Ans. considered suitable for

women.

(iii) In some parts of the world, for example, (») By reserving some seats in the Lok Sabha in the

Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.

 

  1. Mention any four steps which can be undertaken to improve the women’s representation in politics.

OR

Suggest any three steps to improve the women’s participation in politics.

Ans. (i) To make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies

(ii) By reserving some seats in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies for women. (iii) Political parties should also give due representation to women members.

(iv) By raising the literacy rate.

 

  1. Explain three features of the model of a secular state of India.

Answer:

The concept of a secular state in India purports equal treatment all religions and to be officially neutral in the matters of religion.

The following are the features which make India a secular state.

  • Unlike Christianity in America or Buddhism in Sri Lanka, India does not purport to or give

special recognition to any religion. The Constitution of India has nowhere prescribed a particular religion.

  • All Citizens of India and all communities and sects in India have been given freedom to practice, profess and propagate any religion under the Fundamental rights of the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of India has clearly put a ban on any discrimination on the ground of religion. It provides for equal opportunity for all individuals irrespective of their religion.

 

  1. Explain how the proper representation of women in legislature can solve the problem of gender-based discrimination in India.

Answer:

 

The proper representation of women is legislature can solve the problem of gender-based discrimination in the following ways.

  • Proper representation of women in legislature will result in more women- friendly laws.
  • Better policing will help in greater security for women and better law enforcement.
  • Seeing women in positions of decision-making is reassuring women empowerment, which helps to improve their image.

 

  1. Mention any three constitutional provisions that make India a secular state.

Answer:

The constitutional provisions which make India a ‘secular state’ are as follows.

  • The Constitution of India does not give special recognition to any religion and there is no state religion in India, unlike, Christianity in America, and Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
  • All individuals and communities have been given freedom to practice, profess and propagate any religion.
  • The Constitution of India has put a ban on any discrimination on the grounds of religion.
  • According to the constitution, the state cannot intervene in the matters of religion to promote

religious equality.

 

  1. Is the caste system coming to an end in India? Give arguments in support of your answer.

Answer:

No, I do not think that the caste system is coming to an end in India. From time immemorial, the caste system has been an inseparable part of Indian society and has been deeply rooted in our

culture. It is entrenched in the society and brings about discrimination. Even though a number of government policies have been implemented, the caste system has not been completely

eradicated.

The following are the instances to support this argument.

  • Even though the constitution provides for various provisions for marrying outside the caste, most people in India still marry in their caste.
  • Citizens of the country, while casting their votes, usually vote for a candidate of their own caste, rather than any other caste irrespective of the credibility of the candidate.
  • Political parties keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate before choosing a candidate to represent their party so as to get necessary support for benefiting their election

spree.

  • Untouchability still has not completely eradicated from the Indian society even though the

constitution prohibits any kind of untouchability.

 

  1. Suggest any two measures to check casteism in India.

Answer:

The following are the two measures to check casteism in India.

  • Spread of education: Education upgrades one’s level of thinking and helps in eradicating the

misconceptions of one’s mind. All possible steps should be taken to educate the masses.

  • Economic equality: Inequality in the economic life creates the feeling of superiority and

inferiority among the members of different caste groups. Steps need to be taken to maintain economic equality of all castes.

  • Abolition of Reservation Policy: Reservation in government job, education and other sectors creates conflicting attitude among the members of two different castes. When the people of

higher castes having adequate educational qualification are deprived of all facilities, they revolt against the lower caste people.

  • Political reforms: Political leaders and parties based on caste should be banned from the political horizon.
  • The name and aim of educational institutions referring to castes need to be given up.

 

  1. How can religion be used in politics in a positive manner? Express your view point.

Answer:

Politics and religion can be a deadly combination if not used wisely. It should be for the good of the people rather than used as a weapon to settle scores. Religion can be used in politics in a

positive manner in the following ways.

  • Politics should be guided by the ethics and values of religion.
  • We should raise our demands as a religious community but not at the cost of other religions.
  • Political leaders should also ensure that religion is not used as a medium of oppression and

discrimination. They should have equal response to different religious conflicts or demands.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. Why are caste barriers breaking down in India? Explain any five reasons.

Answer:

In the recent decades, cast barriers have been breaking down in India because of the following

reasons.

  • It has been the efforts of social reformers that people have realised the caste based differences

had no logic.

  • The economic development, large scale urbanisation and occupational mobility has further

erased the caste barriers.

  • Spread of literacy and education has also played a great role in upgrading the beliefs and

ideologies of the people.

  • Complete eradication of landlordism has resulted in the decline of caste system.
  • The constitutional provision of prohibiting caste based discriminations in every form and providing equal opportunities to all has reversed the caste injustices.

 

  1. Describe three advantages and two disadvantages of the political expression of caste differences.

Answer:

The following are the advantages of the political expression of caste differences.

  • In the present times, several political and non-political organisations have fought

discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities for the people from lower caste, who were not given equal status and opportunity like the upper caste people.

  • In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged

communities the space to demand their share of power. Usually it is seen that the disadvantaged communities are not able to exercise their rights but because of political representation of such caste differences, the oppressed people get to put forward their rights to get what they deserve.

  • The following are the disadvantages of the political expression of caste differences.
  • In case of religion, politics based on caste identity alone is not very healthy in democracy. It

can divert attention from other pressing issues such as poverty, development and corruption. Because caste is not the only issue that is causing a hindrance in the society there are various issues that need to be given equal importance.

  • In some cases, caste differences lead to caste division, which further leads to violence and

tension among the people of different caste and that might lead to outburst of riots in the society.

 

  1. “Women in the Indian society still suffer from discrimination and oppression.” Support the statement with suitable examples.

OR

Describe any five ways in which women in India are still discriminated against and oppressed.

 

OR

What are the problems faced by Indian women which affect their social status? Explain any

five. OR

Describe any four aspects of life in which women are discriminated against in Indian society.

OR

Explain any five aspects of our day-to-day life in which women are discriminated against in

India. Answer:

The following points sum up how women are still discriminated against and oppressed in

India.

  • Literacy rate: The first and foremost discrimination is in the field of education where the literacy rate among women is only 66 per cent when compared to a high 82 per cent in males.

Even otherwise, parents prefer educating spending their resources of education of a male child rather than a female child.

  • Sex ratio: The sex ratio in India is as low as 940 females per 1000 males. The proportion of women as compared to men is very low. A major reason behind this is that parents prefer

having a male child over a female child keeping in view the future perspective.

  • Unpaid work: The proportion of highly-paid women is very less when compared to highly-

paid men. Though on an average, Indian women work one hour more than men every day but they are not equally paid and thus their work is also not often valued as much as that of men.

  • Domestic violence: Women every day in Indian society are harassed, exploited, and subjected to all sorts of violence behind the closed doors. Both in urban and rural areas, domestic

violence is one of the most prominent form of discrimination faced by women. Many cases of domestic violence and dowry deaths are reported in the media every day.

  • Female foeticide: In India, a male child is considered a blessing and a female child is considered a bane. This has come to an extent where the female child is killed in the womb of

the mother. This killing of foetus is known as foeticide. Female foeticide is prevalent in both urban and rural areas.

 

  1. Explain any five reasons for the declining caste system in India.

Answer:

The following are the five reasons for the declining caste system in India.

  • Growth of literacy and education: After industrialisation the literacy rate has increased.
  • Occupational mobility: Due to occupational mobility, the new generation takes up

occupations other than those practised by their ancestors.

  • Large-scale urbanisation: Shift of people from rural areas to urban areas in search of jobs and

better living conditions.

  • Efforts made by leaders and reformers: The political leaders and social reformers worked to

establish a society in which caste inequalities are absent.

  • Economic development: Adoption of never technologies from agriculture-based to industry-

based economy and general improvement in living standards.

 

  1. What is communalism ? What are the major beliefs of communal people ?

Ans. Communalism is a situation when a particular community tries to promote its own interest at

the cost of other communities.

Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

Communalism involves thinking along the following lines:

  • The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community.
  • Their fundamental interests should be the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life.
  • Communalism also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same

 

social community. If the followers of different religions have some commonalities, these are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.

  • Sometimes, communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either one of them has to dominate the rest, or they have

to form different nations.

 

  1. State any four provisions of the Indian Constitution which makes it a secular state.

Ans. (i) No official religion : There is no official religion of the Indian state. Unlike the status of

Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Islam in Pakistan and Hinduism in Nepal, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.

(ii) Fundamental Rights : Under the Right To Freedom of Religion, our Constitution provides to all citizens freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.

Under the Cultural and Educational Right, our Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.

(iii) Equality : The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. To ensure equality, untouchability has been

banned.

(iv) Intervention of the state within religious communities : The Constitution allows the state to

intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within the different religious communities.

 

  1. “The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that elections are all about caste and nothing else. That is far from true.” Explain by giving examples.

Ans. (i) Constituencies are a mixture of people belonging to different castes :

No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. So, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections.

(ii) Different choices even within caste : No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or

community because even within the community, people have different choices. When people say that a caste is a ‘vote bank’ of one party, it usually means that about two-thirds of the voters of that community.

(iii) Hunt for a dominating caste : Most of the political parties may put up candidates from the

majority caste. But even this cannot guarantee their victory because some voters have more than one candidate from their castes, while many voters have no candidate from their castes.

History of elections : According to history of Indian elections, the ruling party and the sitting

Member of the Parliament (MP) or Member of the Legistative Assembly (MLA) frequently lose

elections in our country. This proves that though casteism and communalism play a major role in politics, but elections are not about caste and communalism.

 

  1. What forms can caste take in politics ?

OR

Explain any four forms of casteism in Indian Politics.

OR

Explain the role of caste in Indian politics.

OR

Explain any three forms of caste politics in India.

Ans. (i) While choosing candidates : When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate, and nominate candidates from different castes so as

to get necessary support to win elections. (

(ii) While forming a government : When the governments are formed, political parties usually

take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.

(iii) While campaigning : Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to people to

give them their votes on the basis of caste. Some political parties are known to favour some

 

castes, and are seen as their representatives. .

(iv) Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote, has

compelled the political leaders to raise the caste-based issues during elections. They do so to mobilise and secure political support. It also brought new consciousness among the people of castes that were hitherto treated as inferior and low.

 

  1. ‘Politics too influences the caste system.’ Explain.

OR

In what ways does politics influence caste system? OR

How caste is politicised? Explain any three points.

Ans. Politics too influences the caste system and caste identities by bringing them into the

political arena. Thus, it is not politics that gets caste-ridden, it is the caste that gets politicised. Politics in caste normally takes the following forms :

(i) Wide base : Each caste tries to widen its base to gain majority. Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it, the neighbouring castes or sub-castes which were

earlier excluded from it.

(ii) Coalition : Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or

communities, and thus enter into a dialogue and negotiation. This strengthens the basic structure of democracy.

(iii) New groups : New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arena like ‘backward’

and ‘forward’ caste groups.

 

  1. What forms does communalism take in politics?

OR

Define communalism as an ideology. Explain the forms of communalism in politics.

Answer:

Communalism is a strong sense of belonging to particular community especially a religious

community, which often leads to extreme behavior or violence towards others. It cannot tolerate and respect people belonging to different religious communities.

There are different forms of communalism in politics as follows.

  • Communalism in everyday beliefs: It is the most common form of communalism and can

be in the form of religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief that one religion is superior to other religions.

  • Communalism as Majoritarian Dominance and Political Dominance: A communal mind often leads to quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. For people

belonging to the majority community this comes out as ‘Majoritarian dominance’ for those belonging to the minority community, it can take form of a desire to form a separate political

unit.

  • Communalism as political mobalisation: Political mobalisation on religious lines is another

frequent form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, emotional appeals and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in political arena.

  • Communalism in the form of communal violence: Sometimes, communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. For instance, India and Pakistan

suffered some of the worst communial riots at the time of the partition.

To sum up, it can be said that communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to

different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.

 

 

 


DEMOCRACY AND DIVERSITY

 

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. What action was taken by International Olympic Association against each of the three

Olympians, Carlos, Smith and Norman Peter?

Answer:

The following actions were taken against the three Olympians, Carlos, Smith and Norman.

  • Carlos and Smith were held guilty of violating the spirit of the gamgs by making a political statement.
  • Their medals were taken back.
  • Norman too suffered for his action and was not included in the Australian team for the next

Olympic.

 

  1. Every social difference does not lead to social division. Do you agree with the statement?

Justify your answer.

Answer:

No, all social differences do not lead to social divisions. It depends upon the social and political

circumstances whether or not a social difference will lead to a social division. A combination of social differences along with other differences cumulatively decides whether or not a social difference will convert into social division.

For example, a combination of race and economic backwardness would constitute a social

difference that might lead to social division. However, it depends on how the political parties deal with this issue and how the government responds to it. It varies from place to place. While language or religion may be a form of social difference leading to social division in a particular form of society, it may not occur in another society due to different prevailing circumstances. For example, in Belgium, even though there is linguistic form of social difference, it has not led to social division.

 

  1. What did the black glove and raised clenched fist signify? Why did the two athletes do so?

Answer:

The black glove and raised clenched fist were meant to symbolic black power. The athletes did so

in the Mexico Olympics (1968) to signify the discrimination faced by the black people.

With this gesture, they tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United

States. The two men—Tommie Smith and John Carlos—did this to represent unity in Black America. In the United States, during that time, a major racial discrimination was happening where the Black Americans, due to their dark colour, were looked down upon and were not treated as equals with the White Americans in order to grab international attention on this issue the athletes decided to put on black glove and raise the clenched fist when they were being awarded their medals.

 

  1. What action was taken by the International Olympic Association against each of the three

Olympians—Carlos, Smith and Peter Norman? Answer:

The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the spirit of

Olympic Games by making a strong political statement during the awarding of medals to them.

The medals given to Smith and Carlos were taken back from them by the Association and back home they faced a lot of criticism and were looked down upon for their acts.

Norman too faced consequences for supporting the act of Smith and Carlos. Although his medals were not taken back, he suffered for his action and was not included in the Australian team for the

next Olympics.

 

  1. Despite being a nation with numerous social divisions, why has Netherlands not faced a crises or a conflict? Explain the reasons.

Answer:

The following are the reasons why despite being a nation with numerous social divisions, the

Netherlands has not faced a crises or a conflict.

  • Dominant Religion: The dominant religion prevailing in the Netherlands is Christianity.

Both Catholics and Protestants are Christians and hence there is no conflict in terms of which religion is predominant.

  • No disparity: In the Netherlands, there is no disparity between the rich and the poor among

Catholic and Protestant communities.

  • No discrimination: Even though there exist two classes of the rich and the poor and two communities—Catholics and Protestants, there is no discrimination on the basis of caste and religion.

 

  1. How does overlapping of social differences lead to social division? Why is it easier to accommodate cross-cutting differences than overlapping* differences?

Answer:

Overlapping of social differences occurs when some social difference overlaps other difference.

Situations of this kind produce social divisions, when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities. For example, difference between Blacks and Whites in the United States becomes a social division because Blacks tend to be poor and landless, and often face injustice and discrimination. In our country, dalits tend to be poor and landless and often face injustice and discrimination. Overlapping differences create possibility of deep social divisions and tensions.

Whereas cross-cutting differences occur when social differences cross-cut one another, it is

difficult to pit group of people against the other. It means that groups that share a common interest

on the issue are likely to be on different sides on a different issue. For example, Northern Ireland and the Netherlands, both, are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics and Protestants. In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap each other, if Catholics tend to be poor and have suffered discrimination whereas in Netherland, class and religion tend to cross-cut each other and both are equally likely to be rich or poor. It means they have conflict in Northern

Ireland and it is not so in the Netherlands. Cross-cut social differences are easier to accommodate.

 

  1. What were the reasons for conflict in Ireland? How was the problem solved?

Answer:

There was a serious ethnic and political conflict in Northern Ireland for many years. The main

reason for the conflict was the division and the demand for separation by the two existing social groups, i.e. the Catholics and the Protestants. The Protestants who were represented by the Unionists demanded that they should not be separated from the United Kingdom as it is predominantly Protestant. On the other hand, the Catholics, who were represented by the Nationalist Party, demanded that Northern Ireland should be unified with the Republic of Ireland, which has been predominantly a Catholic country. The problem was resolved in 1998, when the British Government and the Nationalist Party signed a peace treaty after which the armed struggle between the two social groups ended.

 

  1. Describe the factors which decide the outcomes of the politics of social division?

Answer:

Three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions are as follows.

  • The way people perceive their identifies: Social divisions may take place, if people demand a special recognition to their identities. If people see their identities in singular terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate and avoid social divisions.

 

  • Leadership provided by political leaders/The way political leaders react to the situations: The role played by political leaders and the leadership provided by them play an important role in creating or filling social divisions.
  • The reaction of the government to demands of different groups: If the government gives

equal representation and equal share of power to all the major and minor groups in the society, the chances of social divisions minimise. If the government tries to suppress a demand, it

could create unrest, thereby paving the way for social divisions.

 

  1. Explain with examples different forms of social differences.

OR

Give a comparative study of social difference by overlapping and cross-cutting. Answer:

Comparative Study between Overlapping and Cross-cutting Social Differences Overlapping and cross-cutting differences are the situation which determine social divisions.

Overlapping Differences Cross-cutting Differences
(a) In the overlapping social

differences, social division takes place

when some social differences overlap other differences.

(a) In cross-cutting social differences,

social division takes place when differences

cross-cut one another, hence it is difficult

to compete one group of people against the

other.

(b) The situation of overlapping

differences produces a kind of social division in which one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.

(b) The situation of cross-cut differences

signifies those groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be in different sides on a different issue.

(c) Overlapping social differences

create possibilities of deep social

divisions and tensions.

(c) Cross-cutting social differences are

easier to accommodate.

(d) For example, the difference

between Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the USA because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.

(d) For example, the case of Netherlands

suits the cross-cutting social differences. Here, class and religion tend to cut-cross each other. Hence, society got divided between Catholics and Protestants.

 

 

 

  1. “We have different identities in different contexts.” Support the statement with three facts.

Answer:

The presence of different socio-economic, religious, linguistic and caste group gives us different identities at different times and in different contexts. This can be called social diversity. These

identities at some point divide us and at some point unite us. For example, one can be Hindu or

Muslim or Sikh but when it comes to education we are all students irrespective of our religion.

The following are the facts to support the statement.

  • People belonging to same religion feel that they do not belong to the same community

because their caste is different. For example, Hindus are all of the same religion but there are different castes.

  •  Sometimes people from different religions can have same caste which gives them a sense of belongingness.
  • It may be seen among rich and poor people that they do not keep cordial even after belonging to the same religion, same caste and even family.

 

  1. What are the features of a homogeneous society? Mention the name of any one country having such society.

Answer: The following are the features of a homogeneous society. A homogeneous society is a society that has similar kinds of people.

In a homogeneous society, there are no significant ethnic differences and members share a common culture. Nowadays, homogeneous societies are undergoing rapid change due to the

influx of people.

For instance, Germany and Sweden have homogeneous societies but they are also becoming

multi-cultural with the influx of people.

Question 18.

What did the African-American athletes in Mexico Olympics do in order to draw international attention to social discrimination in the United States?

Answer:

To draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States the two African-

American athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, stood with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed, while the American national

anthem was played. Their gesture symbolised Black Power. They wore black socks without shoes to represent Black Poverty. Thus, their gesture signified black power and protest against social

discrimination in the United States.

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [5 MARKS]

 

  1. How is political expression of social divisions in democracy beneficial?

Answer: In democracy, political expression of social divisions is normal and can be healthy. In case of India and Belgium, it has been observed that social diversities can be accommodated in a

very positive manner. But a positive attitude towards diversity and a willingness to accommodate it do not come about easily.

People who feel marginalised, deprived and discriminated against have to fight against injustices. Such a fight often takes the democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful and

constitutional manner and seeking a fair position through elections.

Sometimes social differences can take the form of unacceptable level of social inequality and

injustice. The struggle against such inequalities sometimes takes the path of violence and defiance of state power.

However, history shows that democracy is the best way to fight for recognition and also to accommodate diversity.

 

  1. Distinguish between Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) and The Black Power Movement
Civil Rights Movement Black Power Movement
1.  This movement emerged in 1954

and lasted till 1968

1.  This movement emerged in 1966 and

lasted till 1975

2.  It was a non-violent movement. 2.  It believed in violence.
3.  This movement was led by Martin

Luther King (junior).

3.  This movement had no leader.
4.  It was, in fact, a reform

movement.

4.  This movement resorted to violence

to end racism.

5.  It was a civil disobedience

movement against racially

discriminatory laws and practices.

5.  It was an unorganized, more militant

and antiracist movement..

 

(1966-1975) in the USA. Ans:

 

  1. Explain the reasons of social differences.

OR

Why do social differences emerge in society ?

Ans. (i) Birth : Birth is the most important factor which is responsible for social differences. A

person in India is considered of a low caste because of his birth in the lower class family. A Black is discriminated from White because of his colour which is once again controlled by birth.

(ii) Differences based on choice : Some of the differences are based on our choices. For example, some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion. Differences also occur

because of choice of occupation. Differences occur among the people because of different professions and economic activities also.

(iii) Differences based on religion:

Sometimes religion can be one of the causes of social differences. It is fairly common for people

belonging to the same religion to feel that they do not belong to the same community because their caste or sect is very different.

(iv) Differences based on economic status : Economic status can also be responsible for social differences. Rich and poor people belonging to the same community or religion or sect often do

not keep close relations with each other as they feel that they are very different. ‘

(v) Differences based on caste/color : In many regions of the world people are differentiated on

the basis of caste or colour. For example, in United States and South Africa Blacks were discriminated because of their skin color.

 

  1. When do social divisions take place in the society? Explain with suitable examples.

Answer:

Social division takes place under following circumstances.

(a) Social division due to overlapping differences. It happens when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.

For example, the difference between the Blacks and Whites in the United States becomes a social

division because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against. Situation of this kind produces social divisions.

(b) Social division due to cross-cutting differences. If social differences cross-cut one another, it is difficult to compete one group of people against the other. It means that groups that share a

common interest on one issue are likely to be on different sides on a different issue, thereby leading to a social division.

For example, Northern Ireland is a dominantly Christian country but is divided between Catholics and Protestants. Here, class and religion overlap each other. If you are Catholic, you are more

likely to be poor and discriminated against. The result is the division of the society.

(c) Social division of one kind or another exists in most countries. It does not matter whether

the country is small or big. For instance, India is a vast country with many communities, at the same time, Belgium is a small country with many communities.

(d) Sometimes there is division or difference in society due to migration and migrants. Even those countries such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly homogenous, are undergoing

rapid change with influx of people from other parts of the world. Migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community. If social divisions do not exist in a

country they must never be expressed in politics.

In a sense most countries of the world are multi-cultural and have multi-dimensional social

divisions.

 

 

 


DEVELOPMENT

 

 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

 

  1. What is meant by economic development? What are the two bases of measuring economic development of a country?

Answer:

Economic development can be defined as efforts that seek to improve the economic well-being

and quality of life for a community by creating and/or retaining jobs and supporting or growing incomes and the tax base. It is the increase in the growth and welfare of people, improvement of quality. In layman’s language it is a process, which makes people in general, better off by increasing their

command over goods and services and by increasing the options open to them. The two bases of measuring economic development of a country are as follows.

  • HDI (Human Development Index)
  • Per capita income

 

  1. What may be the development for one may be the destruction for the other.” Explain the statement with appropriate examples.

Answer:

Yes, it is true that what may be called development for some may turn out to be destruction for the others.

For example, the Sardar Sarovar dam built over the Narmada river led to a major evacuation of the tribes near the Narmada river and as a result the tribes lost their land and homes. This

development of Sardar sarovar dam turned out to be a destruction for the tribes.

Another example, On the border of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, in the Singrauli region,

over 200,000 people have been displaced on different occasions. First by the Rihand dam, then by a series of thermal power plants of the National Thermal Power Corporation. Singrauli has illuminated the lives of many in the urban centres, but has seen its natives groping in endless darkness, grappling to overcome the trauma of displacement. So the development in Singrauli led to destruction of its people.

Multinational companies take away the land of the farmers for the construction of industries. It

may be beneficial for boosting production but at the same time it causes loss of cultivable land and livelihood of the farmers. Various movements have been launched against the acquisition of land from the farmers.

 

  1. State the three factors other than human income, that are important in life.

Answer: Human Development Index is a tool developed by the United Nations to measure and

rank countries based on the level of social and economic development. The HDI makes it possible to track changes in development levels from time to time and to compare development levels in different countries. The concept of HDI goes beyond income and growth to cover overall development with the object of improving the conditions of people from all angles.

The organization that measures the HDI is the United Nations.

Three major indicators of the HDI are as follows

  • Health: Without proper health facilities, no matter how much a country earns, it will not be able to provide basic facilities to its people.
  • Education: Over the past few decades, education has become an important factor in leading a quality life. So, if the country has high income but the literacy rate is low, it cannot be

considered developed.

  • Security: More than income, people want to have a secured life. A country should be able to

provides its citizens a sense of security.

 

  1. Explain the importance of sustainable development with reference to groundwater by giving example.

Answer: Sustainable development means a development in a manner that satisfies the demands of today without hampering or compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their needs

by utilizing the resources.

In lay man’s language it means using the resources in a manner that you and the future

generations can use them tomorrow as well.

It is important because of the reason that we may enjoy the gifts of nature, but cannot think of our

generations to live without such benefits. It becomes our duty to use nature for the fulfillment of our needs and not our greed. Our development should not hamper the needs of the future generations.

In the case of groundwater, we have utilized it to the maximum. It is a natural resource which is

replenished by nature. People living in the areas with surplus water reserves should take care for its conservation. Efforts should be made not to overuse or degrade the quality of water. Recent evidences show that groundwater is under serious threat of disappearance. If suitable steps are not taken, it can pose serious consequences.

 

  1. “People have conflicting development goals”. Support the statement with suitable example.

Answer: It is true to say that people have conflicting developmental goals. What may be the development for one may not be for the other. Different people have different interests, life

situations and state of mind. They visualize things, actions, etc. according to their level of understanding.

For example, the construction of a flyover to reduce the congestion and traffic jams may be a development goal especially for the daily commuters. But for the construction of the flyover,

surrounding houses, shops, etc. need to be demolished which may not be like by the occupants of these shops and houses. This may not be a development goal for them.

 

  1. Describe any three possible development goals of landless rural labourers.

Answer: The following can be the developmental goals of landless rural labourers.

  • More days of work with better wages.
  • Social and economic equality.
  • Low price food grains.
  • Better education facilities for their children.

 

  1. Differentiate between Human Development Report and World Development

Answer: The following are the differences between Human Development Report and World

Development Report:

Human Development Report World Development Report
(a) This notion of development implies good and quality life. (a) It stresses on rise in per capita income and growth in the economy.
(b) Its parameters are good education, health facilities etc. (b) It takes into account quantitative aspect of development.
(c) It includes literacy rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate etc. to determine the status of development of a particular area, region or country. (c) It includes GDP, national income and per capita income.

 

  1. “Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well” Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer with any three suitable arguments.

Answer: Yes, we agree with the statement that money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well because of the following reasons.

 

  • Money can buy things that can be one factor on which our life depends like food. But the quality of non-material things like freedom, security and respect cannot be bought with money.
  • We cannot buy pollution free environment, unadulterated medicines and peace with money.
  • Schools, colleges, parks, hospitals, etc. are the facilities which cannot be run individually.

There has to be a collective effort of team work between the government or society in

providing these to the general public.

 

  1. Why does Kerala have a better Human Development Index ranking in comparison to

Punjab? Explain with three reasons.

Answer: Kerala has a better Human Development Index ranking in comparison to Punjab even though Punjab has a higher per capita income in comparison to Kerala because of the following

reasons.

  • Education: Kerala has a higher level of literacy rate than Punjab. In fact, the literacy rate of

Kerala is the highest in India. In Kerala, the literacy rate is ninety-one per cent which is almost as high as that of China. This is mainly because education has been made available to everyone in Kerala whether they are upper caste or the lower caste. There is no bias in the field of education, which is one of the major reasons why Kerala has a better HDI than Punjab.

  • Health care: The health care facilities in Kerala are far better than those in Punjab. Kerala

has over 2700 government medical hospitals, with 330 beds per 1,00,000 population which is the highest in India, making it achieve a higher ranking in the HDI.

  • Politics: The political parties in Kerala have taken steps for genuine welfare of the people and have invested intelligently and methodologically in the field of health and education. The

government of Kerala has even worked for the land reforms in the State to support the people.

 

  1. What is the main norm used by the World Bank in classifying different countries as rich and poor countries? What are the restrictions of such norms?

Answer: Average income or per capita income is the main domain used by the World Bank in classifying different countries as rich and poor countries. According to the World Bank, income is

one of the most important attributes. Countries with average income of USD 12616 per annum and above are called rich countries. Countries with average income of USD 1530 or less are

called middle-income countries and countries with average income of USD 1035 or less are called poor countries.

This is based on the conception that the higher the total income of the country, the developed it is. However, there are certain restrictions to this norm because income, although an important

measure for calculating growth and development, is not the only attribute. Over the past few decades, health and education have made an important mark in the development of a country. So,

even if the country has high per capita income and literacy rate but does not have good medical facilities, it cannot be considered developed.

 

  1. Besides income, what are the six other things people may look for growth and development?

Answer: The following are the six things that people may look for growth and development, besides income.

  • freedom
  • security
  • respect
  • quality of life
  • health
  • education

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [5 MARKS]

 

  1. “Though the level of income is important, it is an inadequate measure of the level of development.” Justify the statement.

Answer:

Although the level of income is an important indicator of development, it is an inadequate measure of the level of development because:

(a) it takes into consideration only the monetary view of development.

(b) a high level of income may not satisfy an individual if other aspects like security, freedom,

opportunities, welfare, health facilities, education and cleanliness, are absent.

(c) it is perhaps universally accepted that development is not just about income, although income

(economic wealth, more generally) has a great deal to do with it.

(d) development is also about the removal of poverty and undernutrition. It is an increase in life

expectancy and access to sanitation, clean drinking water and health services. It is the reduction of infant mortality and increased access to knowledge and schooling and literacy, in particular.

(e) it fails as an adequate overall measure and must be supplemented by other indicators directly.

 

  1. What is Human Development Index? Which organization measures the HDI? Explain the three major indicators of the HDI.

Answer:

Human Development Index is a tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank

countries based on the level of social and economic development. The HDI makes it possible to track changes in development levels from time to time and to compare development levels in different countries. The concept of HDI goes beyond income and growth to cover overall development with the object of improving the conditions of people from all angles.

The organization that measures the HDI is the United Nations.

Three major indicators of the HDI are as follows.

  • Health: Without proper health facilities, no matter how much a country earns, it will not be able to provide basic facilities to its people.
  • Education: Over the past few decades, education has become an important factor in leading a quality life. So, if the country has high income but the literacy rate is low, it cannot be

considered developed.

  • Security: More than income, people want to have a secured life. A country should be able to

provides its citizens a sense of security.

 

  1. What is sustainable development? Suggest any two ways in which resources can be used judiciously.

Answer:

Sustainable development is a pattern of development that promises the use of resources in a way

that meets human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come.

In basic understanding, like today we are able to use the resources given to us, the future generations should also be able to use them for which we need to keep a tab on our usage and use

the resources judiciously.

Today, we need to fuel the concept of sustainable development to make sure that resources are

also available for the future generations.

Resources can be used judiciously in the following manner.

  • Using bicycle or walking for short distances rather than using a two wheeler or four wheeler can help in saving fuel and also will help in reducing air pollution.
  • Urbanization without deforestation can help us to sustain the natural environment.
  • By using CNG in place of petrol, we can help in reducing air pollution.
  • Judiciously using water resources and not polluting them will help us to preserve our water resources.

 

  1. In what respects is the criterian used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Answer: The criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development is different from the criterion used by the World Bank in the following ways.

  • The UNDP compares the development of the countries on the basis of literacy rate, gross enrolment ratio and health status of their people. On the their hand, the World Bank compares

the development of the countries on the basis of per capita income or average income.

  • On the basis of the comparison done by the UNDP, the countries are ranked as first, second,

third… whereas on the basis of the comparison done by the World Bank the countries are divided into three categories:

  1. Rich or developed or high-income countries
  2. Middle-income or developing countries
  3. Poor or underdeveloped or low-income countries
  • The UNDP has a broader concept of development and the World Bank has a narrow concept

of development.

 

  1. Describe briefly five steps taken by the Indian government for raising the status of women at par with that of men.

Answer: The following steps have been taken by the Indian government for raising the status of women at par with that of men.

(a) Women are given the equal right to vote like those of men.

(b) The government of India has declared dowry as illegal and now no one can force the other

party to give dowry.

(c) To impart education to girls various schools and colleges have been opened.

(d) Seats have been reserved for women in the legislatures to enable them to participate in decision making.

(e) Women have been recognised as a separate target group in our development planning, for raising their status at par with that of men. To achieve the above objective the National

Commission for women was set up in January 1992.

 

  1. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank is classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any? In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank? Answer: The criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development is different from the criterion used by the World Bank in the following ways.
  • The UNDP compares the development of the countries on the basis of literacy rate, gross

enrolment ratio and health status of their people. On the their hand, the World Bank compares the development of the countries on the basis of per capita income or average income.

  • On the basis of the comparison done by the UNDP, the countries are ranked as first, second, third… whereas on the basis of the comparison done by the World Bank the countries are

divided into three categories:

  1. Rich or developed or high-income countries
  2. Middle-income or developing countries
  3. Poor or underdeveloped or low-income countries
  • The UNDP has a broader concept of development and the World Bank has a narrow concept of development.

Limitation: Limitation of this criterion is that average or per capita income is not the only factor important for development. This factor hides the other important factor—distribution of income,

which also affects development. Higher average income, along with equitable distribution of income is considered favourable for development.

 

 

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