(Points have to be explained if necessary)

  1. Highlight any three similarities between Allende’s government in Chile and Walesa’s government in Poland.                                                                                                                                       (2016,2012)

Ans.     1)    Both held democratic views.

2)    Both supported the rights of workers.

3)    Both worked for the welfare of the common people.

  1. “Walesa soon emerged as a leader of the striking workers in Poland”. Identify three values that helped him to lead the strike.      (2016,2015,2013)

Ans.     a)    Concern for the striking workers.

b) Leadership necessary to lead the strike.

c) Welfare for the workers.

d) Fight against injustice done to workers.

3.”Martial law was imposed in Poland in December 1981″. Who imposed it and why ? (2016)

  • Ans.     1)    General Jaruzelski.
  •          a)    Independent trade unions like Solidarity were formed.
  •           b)   Popularity of solidarity against one party communist rule.
  •          c )    Not to give the people freedoms and rights.
  •           d)   Widespread corruption and mismanagement by government.

4.How did Robert Mugabe’s party ZANU PF violate the features of a democratically elected government ? Mention any three methods adopted by the party.                                                                           (2016)

Ans.     Robert Mugabe’s party violated democratic features

a) Elections were always won by ZANU- PF & Mugabe elected as President.

b) Constitution changed several times to increase the power of President & make him less

c) Opposition party was harassed.

d) V. and radio were controlled by government.

5.How did Pinochet’s military dictatorship come to an end ? Explain. (2016)


  1.  Pinochet’s military dictatorship came to an end after he decided to hold a referendum in 1988.
  2. People’s vote was a decisive ‘no’ to Pinochet.
  3. It resulted in losing first his political and then his military power.

6.Who led the military coup in Chile ? Describe the atrocities committed by him ? (2016)

Ans.     General Augusto Pinochet.

  1. He established military dictatorship.
  2. He tortured and killed those who supported Allende.
  3. General Bachelet’s wife and daughter were imprisoned.
  4. More than 3,000 people were killed and many were reported missing under his rule.

7.Who was Pinochet ? What made him un popular in chile ? (2016)

Ans.     a)    Pinochet was an Army General who led the coup in chile.

He became the president and ruled the country for 17 years.

  1. b) He became unpopular because :

*    He established military dictatorship in Chile.

*    He tortured and killed all those who wanted to restore democracy.

  1. State any three policy decisions taken by Allende after being elected as the President of Chile in 1970.                                                                                                                                                                         (2016)

Ans.     Policy decisions of Allende :

  • a) Took several policy decisions to help poor and workers.
  • b) Reformed educational system.
  • c) Redistributed land to landless farmers.
  • d) Distributed free milk to children.
  • e) Opposed foreign companies taking away natural resources.

9.State two differences and two similarities between Pinochet`s rule in Chile and the communist rule in               Poland.                                                                                                                            (2016,2013,2012)

Ans.     Differences :

1)     Chile was ruled by military dictator and Poland was ruled by a political party.

2)    Government of Poland claimed to rule on behalf of working class whereas Pinochet made no such                     claims and openly favored capitalist.

Similarities :

1)    In both countries, people could not choose or change their rulers.

2)    There was no real freedom to express one’s opinion, form political associations and organize                              protests.

  1. Describe any three demands of the workers of ‘Lenin Shipyard’ during their strike which started in August 1980 in Poland.                                                                                                                       (2016)

Ans.     Demands of workers.

1)    Take back the dismissed crane operator.

2)    Right to form independent trade union.

3)    Release of political prisoners.

4)    End to censorship on press.

  1. Highlight any three main developments in Chile after the referendum held by Pinochet in 1988. (2016)

Ans.     Developments in Chile.

a) Pinochet lost his political and military powers.

b) Political freedom was restored.

c) Army’s role in the government was eliminated.

d) The elected governments that came to power ordered enquiries into Pinochet’s rule.

12.How were the three democratic governments of Allende’s Chile, Walesa’s Poland and Michelle’s Chile different in their approach towards social and economic matters ? Explain.                                   (2016)

Ans.     Allende –  Government control on all big industries.

Walesa –  Market should be free of government control.

Bachlet –  Stood somewhere in the middle of this issue.

  1. Describe the military coup of 1973 through which Salvadar Allende was killed. (2016)

Ans.     *    On 13th September 1973 the military took over the seaport and arrested the Defense Minister.

*    The military threatened Allende to resign but he refused.

*    The President’s house was attacked and Alende was killed.

*    The elected government was overthrown by conspiracy and violence.

  1. Describe any three major features of communist party rule in Poland. (2016)

Ans.     Features :

  1. No other political party is allowed to function except communists.
  2. The people could not freely choose the leaders of the government.
  3. No person can speak against the leaders or the party or the government.
  4. Explain any three differences between Pinochet’s rule in Chile and Communist rule in Poland.                                                                                                                                                                (2015,2013)

Ans.     Differences :

Pinochet’s rule in Chile Communist rule in Poland
It was ruled by military dictator. It was ruled by a political party.
It had not made any claims like communist party. It claimed that it was ruling on behalf of the working class.
It openly favoured big capitalist. Since ruling on behalf of the working class, it could not extend any such favour.


  1. Who was Salvador Allende ? Why was his policy opposed by the Aristocrats ? (2015)

Ans.     Salvador Allend was the elected President of Chile.

a)    Reforms of the educational system were made accessible to the all sections of society.

b)    Free milk for children.

c)    Opposition of foreign company to protect natural resources of Chile.

17.State any three features of 21 point agreement signed by the striking workers in Poland. (2015,2013)

Ans.     21 -point agreement :

i) Workers got the right to form independent trade unions.

ii)   Right to strike was also recognized.

iii)   New trade union solidarity was formed.

iv) Revelation of widespread corruption and mismanagement in the government.

18.Explain any three contributions of UN as a government of the world. (2015)

Ans.     1.    The UN is a global association to help cooperation in international law, security economic                                   development and social equality.

  1. The UN Security Council is responsible for maintaining peace and security among countries. It can                     put together an international army and take action against the wrong doer.
  2. International Monetary Fund and World Bank, which are the agencies of the UN give loans to the                       governments in times of need.

19.”International organizations are undemocratic” ? Justify the statement.    (2015,2013)

Ans.        International organizations are not much democratic as Security Council has Veto power.

–    In IMF, countries have voting weight age according to amount contributed. U.S.A attacked Iraq                           without permission from the U.N.

  1. Describe any three factors that contributed to the progress towards democracy in Britain. (2014)

Ans.     1)    In Britain the progress towards democracy started much before the French Revolution. Through                        the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, series of political events reduced the power of monarchy                                and feudal lords.

2)    The right to vote was granted to more and more people around the same time as the French                             Revolution.

3)    British colonies in North America declared themselves independent in 1776 which led to                                     strengthening of democratic movements in Britain.

  1. Explain any three differences between a democratic country and a non – democratic country. (2014)


  Democratic country Non Democratic country
1. The people are allowed to criticize the government. Not allowed to criticize the government.
2. Allowed to form independent Trade Union. Workers are not allowed to form Trade unions.
3. Equality is given in all areas: Political, Economical, Social. Equality is not given in all areas to people. They depend on the mercy of the king.


  1. “Most of the global institutions failed to pass the test of democracy”. Justify the statement by giving three examples.                                                                                                                        (2014,2012)

Ans.     Democracy in international organizations :

a) The UN General Assembly cannot take any decision about what action should be taken in a conflict                     between different countries. The real power is with five permanent members who have Veto                             It means that the Council cannot take a decision if any permanent member says no to that decision.

b) The 173 member states of International Monetary Fund do not have equal voting rights. The vote                      of each country is weighed by how much money it has contributed to the IMF. Nearly half of the                        voting power in the IMF is in the hands of only seven countries (US, Japan, France, UK, Saudi                               Arabia, China and Russia). The remaining 166 countries have very little say in these international                      organizations to take decisions.

c) The World Bank has a similar system of voting. The President of the World Bank has always been a                       citizen of the US, conventionally nominated by the Treasury Secretary (Finance Minister) of the US

23.  What is meant by ‘Universal Adult Franchise’? Which two categories of persons were benefitted by this right ?                                                                                                                                         (2014,2012)

Ans.     Universal Adult Franchise or Universal Suffrage means that all adults have the right to vote without any             discrimination.

*   The common people were benefited.

*    The women were benefited.

  1. What are the three chief responsibilities being fulfilled by the United Nations ? Explain. (2014)

Ans.     1)    Implementation of international law to protect environment.

2)   Helps to maintain security.

3)    Economic development.

4)   Social equality.

5)    To maintain peace in the world.

6)   Provides money to the countries in need.

  1. Describe the Democratic Movement in Myanmar.    (2014,2013)
  • Ans.    It gained freedom from colonial rule in 1948 and became a democracy.
  •             But the democratic rule ended in 1962 with a military coup.
  •             In 1990 elections were held for the first time after 30 years.
  •             Aung San Suu Kin won the election but military leader refused to step down.
  1. What is UN (United Nations) ? Describe its main objectives. (2014)

Ans.     a)    United Nations Organization is an international organization which was established after the                              Second World War on October 24, 1945. India is the founder member of this organization.

b) The United Nations represents the second major effort in the 20th century to achieve the goal of a                                better world through a general international organization of the states.

c) Its primary objective is the maintenance of international peace and security. At present 192                               countries are the members of the United Nations.

27.What were the causes that led to the imposition of martial law in Poland under General Jaruzeleski ?                                                                                                                                                                (2013,2012)

Ans.     *    The movement under Lech Walesa Intensified and they demanded for making trade union.

*    Demanded for release of political prisoner and end of censorship .

*    The movement spread across the country and government’s corruption and mismanagement                             became visible.

*    General Jaruzleski became anxious and imposed martial law.

  1. What is International Monetary Fund (MF) ? How do the members of IMF exercise their voting power ? (2013)

Ans.     International Monetary Fund is one of the biggest money lenders for any country in the world.

Its 173 member states don’t have equal voting rights.

The vote of each country is weighed by how much money it has contributed to the IMF which is                          totally undemocratic.

29.”While nations are becoming more democratic than they were earlier, international organizations are becoming less democratic”. Justify the statement with three suitable examples.                           (2013)

  • Ans.     International organizations are becoming less democratic.
  •             *    Twenty years ago there were two big powers in the world the US and the USSR.
  •             *    The competition and conflict between these two big powers and their allies kept a certain balance                     in all the global organizations.
  •             *    After the collapse of USSR, the US appears to be the only Super power in the World .
  •             *    This American dominance affects the working of international organizations.

30.How did Solidarity come to power in Poland ? (2013)

Ans.     a)    Lech Walesa formed Solidarity party in Poland.

b) Solidarity began to work for the freedom.

c) It organized a series of strikes in opposition to the Government’s actions.

d) Walesa was elected the President of Poland in October 1990 and Solidarity came into power.




  1. Who led the military coup on 11 September 1973 in Chile ? (2016)

Ans.     Augusto Pinochet.

  1. What was the name of the first independent trade union formed in any of the communist regimes ?                                                                                                                                                                     (2016,2013)

Ans.     Solidarity.

  1. The Poland United Worker’s Party was a ………………………….  (2016)

Ans.     Communist Party.

  1. Who imposed martial law in Poland in 1981 ?    (2016,2012)

Ans.     Jaruzelski.

  1. For whose help had President Allende made several policy decisions ? (2016)

Ans.     Poor and workers.

  1. In which country was the trade union ‘Solidarity’ formed ?    (2016,2013)

Ans.     Poland.

  1. Which leader wanted the markets to be free of government interference ? (2016)

Ans.     Walesa of Poland.

  1. What was the main demand of striking workers in Poland under the leadership of Walesa ?(2016,2014)

Ans.     Right to form independent Trade unions.

  1. Who had replaced Salvador Allende ? (2016)                                                                                                                                                                                  8

Ans.     General Augusto Pinochet.

  1. Which country had supported military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet ? (2016)

Ans.     United States of America.

  1. Which political party was led by Salvador Allende ? (2016)

Ans.     Socialist party of Chile.

  1. General Jaruzelski imposed martial law in Poland, in December 1981 due to ………………  (2016,2014)

Ans.     Revelation of corruption and mismanagement in the government.

  1. Which term is used for the sudden overthrow of a government illegally ? (2016)

Ans.     Coup.

  1. Chile is a country situated in …………………….. (2016)

Ans.     South America.

  1. What right was given to striking workers in Poland under the leadership of Lech Walesa ? (2015)

Ans.     Right to form independent trade unions.

  1. A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal is called ……………………………                                                                                                       (2015,2014)

Ans.     Referendum.

  1. Which communist state supported and controlled the government in Poland during communist rule ?                                                                                                                                                                (2015,2013)

Ans.     Soviet Union.

  1. Who emerged as the leader of the striking workers of Poland after being dismissed from service in 1976 ?                                                                                                                                                 (2015)

Ans.     Lech Walesa.

  1. 19. Aparthied- A system of racial discrimination was unique to which country ? (2015)

Ans.     South Africa.

  1. In 1999 who brought back army rule in Pakistan ? (2015)

Ans.     General Musharraf.

  1. For how many years did Pinochet rule Chile ? (2015)

Ans.     17.

  1. How many permanent members are there in the Security Council ? (2015)

Ans.     5.

  1. Which incident accelerated the process of democracy in the world after 1990 ? (2015)

Ans.     Disintegration of Soviet Union

  1. Power of a permanent member of the UN Security Council to say ‘No’ to any decision of the Security Council is called ……………………..                                                                                                       (2015)

Ans.     Veto.

  1. Who was elected as the President of Chile in January 2006 ? (2015)

Ans.     Michelle Bachelet.

  1. Which was the only country in the world to grant Universal Adult Franchise to its citizens by 1900 ?                                                                                                                                                                         (2015)

Ans.     New Zealand.

  1. In which year was the Universal Adult Franchise granted in India ? (2015)

Ans.     1950.

  1. The President of the World Bank has always been a citizen of…………………. (2015)

Ans.     USA.

  1. The number of republics into which the Soviet Union broke down in 1991 were ……………. (2015, 2012)

Ans.     15.

  1. In Great Britain, Universal Adult Franchise was granted in …………………… (2015)

Ans.     1928.

  1. When was the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa unfurled ? (2015)

Ans.     26 April, 1994.




  1. Citizens of non-democratic nation can bring about a change in the political system of the country. Write any three traits which can help them to do so.                                                                       (2016)                                                                                                                                                                                  10
  2. How did General Augusto Pinochet establish military dictatorship in Chile ? (2016)
  3. State any three major developments in Chile after the military coup of September 1973. (2016)
  4. What does IMF stand for ? Write its any two functions. (2016)
  5. Describe three important features of Democracy. (2016)
  6. How does democracy improve the quality of decision making ? Explain. Explain any three salient features of democracy.                                                                                                                      (2016)
  7. Is China a democratic country or not? Give any three arguments in favour of your answer. (2016)


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