BOARD EXAM QUESTIONS –TOPIC WISE
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1.”Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.” Analyze the statement with examples. (2016)
Ans. Nationalism in Europe- The Balkans:
- During this period nationalist groups become increasingly intolerant of each other.
- Manipulations of the nationalist aspirations were there.
- The Balkan was under the control of the ottoman empire.
- Ideas of Romantic Nationalism spread in the Balkan.
- They claimed for independence or political rights on nationality and subjected foreign domination.
- Russia, Germany, England, Austria-hungry were keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans.
- This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the first world war.
2. Evaluate the contribution of Italian revolutionary-Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe. (2016)
Ans.● During the middle of the 19th century. Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pop and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain.
Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations. During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent program for a unitary Italian Republic.
- He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war.
- In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development political dominance. Thus due to Mazzini`s efforts, In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
- “Culture had played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.” Support the statements with examples. (2016)
- Culture played an important role in creating the ideas of the nation, art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
- Emotions, intuition and mystical feelings were not focused.
- Their efforts was to shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as basis of a nation.
- They criticized the glorification of reason and science.
- German philosopher Johann Gottfried popularized true spirit of nation through folksongs, folk poetry and folk dance.
4 .How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in Europe? Analyze. (2016)
Ans. Artist found a way out to represent a country in the form of a person. The nations were portrayed as female figures. the female figure was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life. It gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. Thus, the female figure become an allegory of the nation.
During the French Revolution artists used the formal allegory to portray idea such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
- How was the unification of Germany facilitated by Otto Von Bismarck? Explain (2016)
Ans. ● In Germany the Army became the Architect of a Nation. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German Confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
- This liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement of the national unification. Its Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- There was over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
- How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain. (2015)
Ans. Nationalism developed through culture in Europe:
- Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
- Romanticism – a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
- German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people- das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of a nation was popularized.
- The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was used to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterates.
7.Describe any five steps taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity
among the French people. (2015)
Ans. Steps taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people were:
- The idea La- Patrie (the Fatherland) and Le-Citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the nation of a united community enjoying equal rights under constitution.
- New French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- The estate General was elected by the body of active citizen and renamed the National Assembly.
- New Hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
- A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizen within its territory.
- Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weight and measures were adopted.
8.Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe. (2015)
Ans. The events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe : Students and other members of educated middle class began to set up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies. the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad. Thus, created a sense of collective identity.
- Describe the process of unification of Germany. (2015)
Ans. Unification of Germany: Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class farmers. In 1848, they tried to unify Germany into a nation. This feelings was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military. From then on Prussia took on the leadership of unification of Germany. Its chief minister, Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of this process. He took the help of military and bureaucracy. There wars over seven years ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. The Prussian King William I was proclaimed German Emperor in January 1871.
- How did a wave of economic nationalism strengthen the wider nationalist sentiment growing in Europe? Explain. (2015)
Ans. Economic nationalism strengthen the wider nationalist sentiment.
- In the economic sphere liberalization stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- There was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes. For example, the German speaking regions in the first half of the 19th century.
- Napoleon`s administrative measures had created out of small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each of these possessed its own currency, weights and measures.
- Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
- The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
- The creation of network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interest to national unification.
- “The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century became a narrow creed with limited ends.” Examine the statement. (2015)
Ans. Sentiment of Nationalism in the first half of the 19th century
Nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant, which leads to war.
Major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations to further their own imperialist aims.
Source of nationalist tension in Europe was the area called Balkans.
Idea of romantic nationalism in the Balkan together with disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
One by one, European nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality to prove that were once independent but were subjugated by foreign power.
As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
- Describe the process of unification of Italy. (2015)
Ans. The unification of Italy: During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states.
During 1830, Mazzini decided to unite Italy. He had formed a secret society – ‘Young Italy’ to achieve his goal. After earlier failures in 1831 and 1848 King Victor Emmanuel ii took to unify the Italian states through wars.
Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Cavour Sardinia – Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Under the leadership of Garibaldi armed volunteers marched into South Italy in 1860 and the kingdom of the Two Sicily’s and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel ii was proclaimed King of united Italy.
- Why did the Balkan region of Eastern Europe present the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe? Explain any four reasons. (2012,2013)
Ans. 1) The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising of many states and territories whose inhabitants were commonly known as Slavs.
2) A large part of Balkans was, under the control of the Ottoman Empire, some other parts were under the control of Russia and Austria – causing a complex problem.
3) The spread of the ideas of Romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made the region very explosive.
4) The Balkan people based their claim for independence or political rights on nationality and desire to win back their long lost freedom.
- How did Cavour overcome the obstacles that came in the way of unification of Italy. (2011)
Ans. Main Obstacles:
- a) Division of Italy into small states and old rulers were restored.
- b) Rule of France and Austria.
- c) Dominance of pope of Rome.
- d) Congress of Vienna.
Cavour took sides in many Wars to attract other states to over throw the Austrian Yoke.
- With reference to Scotland and Ireland explain how British nationalism grew at the cost of other cultures. (2011)
Ans. 1) Through ‘The Act of Union (1707) England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.
2) The growth of British identity in Parliament suppressed the distinctive culture of Scotland.
3) The catholic clans that inhibited the Scottish Highland suffered repression.
4) They were forcibly driven out their homeland.
5) Ireland also was divided between Catholic and protestants.
6) Ireland was forcibly incorporated in the UK.
- Describe the social conditions in Europe in mid-eighteenth century Europe. (2012)
Ans. Social conditions in Europe in the mid- 18th C:
Landed aristocracy was a small group but dominant class in Europe. it was united by a common culture, as it owned estates in the countryside and also town houses.
Peasantry was in majority and to the west, most of the land was under tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe there were large estates manned by serfs.
In Western Europe and parts of Central Europe industrialization and trade led to the rise of new social groups such as industrialist, businessman and professionals.
- How did the Balkan issue become one of the major factors responsible for the first world war (2012,2013)
Ans. 1) The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
2) The Balkan area became an area of intense conflict and different Slavic nationalities struggled of their independence.
3) It became the source of big power rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies and military might.
- Explain any three provisions of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815. (2012)
Ans. Provisions of Treaty of Vienna:
- Bourbon dynasty was restored to power in France.
- France lost territories annexes under Napoleon
- The kingdom of Netherlands was set up in north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
- Prussia given new territories in its western frontier.
- Austria was given Northern Italy.
- Russia was given part of Poland, Prussia was given a part of Saxony.
19.What were the effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830? (2011,2012)
Ans. Effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830 was:
- The Bourbon dynasty which was restored in 1815 was overthrown by liberal revolutionaries.
- A constitutional Monarchy was installed with Louis Philippe as its head.
- An uprising was seen in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the Unites Kingdom of Netherlands.
20.’Ideas of national unity in early nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism.’ Highlight any three points of this ideology. (2012)
Ans. Ideology of Liberalism means:
- Freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
- Concept of govt. by the consent.
- End of autocracy & clerical privileges and representative govt. through parliament was formed.
- Stressed the inviolability of private property.
21.Why was the Napoleonic rule over region unpopular with some section of Europe? (2012)
Ans. Reasons of unpopular Napoleonic rule over other regions were:
- Administrative reforms did not go hand in hand with political freedom.
- Increased taxation and censorship.
- Forced conscription into French army to conquer other parts of Europe.
- “A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing in Europe.” Which class brought about this change? How did they bring about this change? Explain with two reasons. (2012)
Ans. 1) The change was brought about by the new middle class.
2) They brought about the change in two ways:
(a) Formation of Zollverein.
(b) Tariff barriers were abolished.
3) Reduced the currency from 30 to 2.
4) Creation of railways helped them in mobility and harnessing economic interests.
23.Give three examples to show the influence of culture on the growth of nationalism in Europe. (2011,2012)
Ans. a) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of a nation. Art, poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
b) Europe under the influence of romanticism made effort to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common culture past as the basis of nation.
c) German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that the German culture was to be discovered among common people and it was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.
24.Why the 1830`s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe? Give three reasons. (2011,2012)
Ans. The 1830`s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe due to following reasons:
- There were enormous increase in population all over Europe.
- There were more seekers of jobs than employment.
- Population migrated from rural areas to the cities.
- Small producer often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine made goods.
- Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
- The rise of food price and bad harvest led to pauperism.
25.Examine the efforts made by various personalities in the process of German unification. (2011,2012)
Ans. Efforts by personalities to bring unification of Italy:
- Mazzini – Unitary Italian republic program, Formation of society ‘Young Italy.’
- King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war.
- Chief Minister Cavour through a tactful diplomatic alliances with France helped to Defeat Austrian forces.
- Armed volunteers under Garibaldi joined the fray.
26.How did the Liberal nationalists work during the years following 1815? Explain. (2011)
Ans. 1) The fear of repression drove many underground.
2) Secret societies came up to train and spread ideas.
3) Commitment to oppose monarchial forms and fight for freedom and liberty.
4) They worked towards the creation of nation states.
- “The nation building process in Germany had demonstrated the dominance of the Prussian state power.” Analyze the characteristic features of Prussia`s leadership role in movement of German unification (2011,2012)
Ans. a) Otto Von Bismarck, Chief Minister of Prussia, was the architect of this process of unification.
b) Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France, ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
c) The Prussian King-William I was proclaimed the German Emperor.
28.How was the ideology of liberalism allied with National Unity in early 19th century in Europe? Explain in three points. (2011,2012)
Ans. Liberalism allied with Nationalism.
1) Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before law.
2) It emphasized the concept of government by consent.
3) It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges.
4) It believed in a constitution and representative government through Parliament.
5) It emphasized the inviolability of private property.
- How was Ireland incorporated in United Kingdom of Great Britain? (2012,2013)
Ans. Incorporation of Ireland in United Kingdom of Great Britain:
The country of Ireland was deeply divided between the protestants and Catholics.
The English helped the protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic Country.
Catholic revolts against the British were suppressed.
After a failed revolt led by Wolf Tone and his united Irishmen in 1798, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
- What was the impact of Treaty of Vienna (1815) on European people? Write any three points. (2011,2012)
Ans. Representatives of the European power Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed treaty of Vienna in 1815. The impacts of treaty were:
- Deposed Bourbon dynasty was restored to power. Future expansion of French was prevented.
- Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers, while Austria was given control of north Italy.
- In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
- The treaty slowed down the growth of nationalism. There was an effort to restore Monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.
31.Describe the role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian revolutionary. (2011,2012)
Ans. The role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian revolutionary –
- He founded two secret societies – Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
- Members of these societies were like minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and German
- Mazzini`s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the conservatives.
- “The Balkans emerged as the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.” Justify the statement by giving three reasons. (2011,2012)
Ans. Three reasons:
- The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans along with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region explosive.
- The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to get more territory at the expense of the others.
- Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. Each power- Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary, was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending its own control over the area. this led to a series of wars in the region and ultimately the First World War.
- a) What changes the Napoleon implement in his administration ? (2012,2013) b) What values or objectives did he try to achieve ?
Ans. a) Napoleon implemented the following changes in his administration:
- He abolished feudal system.
- He introduced uniform weights and measurement system among all states.
- He simplified administrative system.
- transport and communication system were also improved. b) He tried to achieve the following values:
- Feeling of oneness as France one nation (nationalism).
- Respect for national goods and institutions.
- Equality and uniformity among states.
34.Explain any three reasons for the Greeks to win the Greek War of independence. (2011,2012)
Ans. Reasons for winning the war:
- The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence among the Greeks.
- Nationalism in Greece got the support from other Greeks living in exile.
- West Europeans had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.
- Poets & artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized public spirit in support of Greek struggle against a Muslim empire.
- The English poet, Lord Byron organized funds and went to fight in the war.
35.What changes were introduced by Napoleon during his regime ? (2011,2012)
Ans. a) Napoleon introduced Uniform code, unified administration.
- b) Abolished custom duties.
- c) Standardized Weight and Measures.
- d) Introduced Uniform Currency.
- e) Encouraging movement of goods by removing obstacles.
36.Write any three characteristics of Napoleonic code of 1804. (2011,2012)
Ans. 1) All privileges based on birth were abolished.
2) Equality before law was established.
3) Right to property was secured.
- Explain any three features of the class of landed aristocracy of Europe. (2012,2013)
Ans. Features of landed aristocracy class:
- Landed aristocracy was the dominant class in Europe both politically and socially.
- They were united by a common way of life that cut across regional division.
- They owned huge properties/big estates both in the rural and the urban areas.
- Their families were tied together by matrimonial relations and they wielded much power in their respective countries.
- How did Romanticism paves the way of Nationalism in Europe? Explain. (2011,2012)
Ans. Romanticism, a cultural movement developed a particular form of nationalist sentiments in the following way:
1) CRITICAL APPROCH TOWARDS REASON AND SCIENCE : Romantic Artist criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions intuition and mystical feelings. They wanted to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common culture past as the basis of a nation.
2) FOLK CULTURE AS THE SPIRIT OF THE NATION : Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances the true spirit of nation was popularized. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation building.
3) EMPHASIS ON VERNACULAR LANGUAGE : They gave emphasis on vernacular language to recover the national spirit and to carry the modern nationalist message to large audience who were mostly illiterate.
E.g. Clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
- Examine the conditions of Italy before unification. (2012,2013)
Ans. 1) Political Fragmentation.
2) Italians were scattered over several dynastic states.
3) During the middle of the 19th century Italy was divided into seven states.
4) Out of seven only one, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely House.
5) The north was under Austrian Hapsburg.
6) The centre was ruled by the pope.
7) Southern region were under Bourbon king of Spain.
8) Even there was no common language
- What change came in Nationalism in Europe after 1848? Who was the architect of this process? How was it practiced ? (2011,2012)
Ans. 1) Change in Nationalism in Europe after 1848: Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution. Conservatives promoted states power and political domination.
2) Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of this process.
3) Practiced by army and bureaucracy.
- Name the female allegory which represents France: Describe her main characteristics. (2012,2013)
Ans. a) Marianne.
b) Her characteristics were drawn from those liberty and republic.
c) These are the red cap, the tricolor, the cockade.
d) Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares.
e) Her image were marked on coins and stamps.
42.In France by what name was the civil code of 1804 known? State any two of its features. (2011,2012)
Ans. 1) Napoleonic code.
2) Did away with all privileges based on birth.
3) Established equality before law and secured the right to propriety.
- Describe what you know about the treaty of Vienna. (2012,2013)
Ans. The treaty of Vienna was signed in 1815. According to this treaty:
- The Bourbon dynast was restored to power.
- To prevent expansion of France, a series of states were set up on her frontiers.
- The German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched.
- Write a short note on Duke Metternich. (2011,2012)
Ans. In 1815, representatives of the European powers Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The congress was hosted by the Austrian chancellor Duke Metternich.
- Describe any four features of the civil code of 1804 introduced by Napoleon in France. (2011,2012)
Ans. a) It did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.
b) Napoleon removed the guild restrictions from the towns.
c) Simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
d) He introduced uniform laws and standardized weights and measures and common currency.
e) Transport and communication system was improved.
46.What is meant by Balkan? Why did it turn into perennial source of tension and proved the battlefield of First World War? (2011,2012)
Ans. The term Balkan refers to a region of ethic and geographical variation located in Eastern Europe including small states like Romania, Greece etc. Causes:
- The spread of revolutionary nationalism and the idea of romantic nationalism in Balkan.
- Disintegration of Ottoman empire.
- Clash between imperialists and nationalist forces.
- Clash amongst the Western European imperialists to capture on or other region.
- Racial and Ethnic clashes of identity and supremacy.
47.Explain the role of Giuseppe Mazzini in the unification of Italy. (2011,2013)
Ans. Role of Mazzini
- Formed and members of various secret societies as ‘Young Italy’ or ‘Young Europe’.
- Attempted revolution in liguris.
- Wanted unification with wider alliance of nations.
- Frightened conservatives through opposition to monarchy & vision of democratic republics.
- Favored war for unification.
- Wanted Economic development & Political dominance.
- Examine the main features of the process of German Unification under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck. (2011,2012)
Ans. Main features of the process of German Unification under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck.
- After the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for German national unification.
- Its Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of this process which was carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- Bismarck fought three wars in seven years with Austria, Denmark and France which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
- ‘In the administrative field, Napoleon had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient’. What changes did he bring about? Explain any four. 13
Ans. Revolutionary principles in administrative field: (2012,2013)
- Napoleonic code was introduced which did away with privileges based on birth. Brought equality and right to property.
- Simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system and freed peasants.
- Guild restrictions removed.
- Uniform laws, standard weights and measures, Common Currency was introduced.
- ‘While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation. ‘Examine this statement in context of European nationalism in four points.
Ans. Visualizing the Nation:
- Artists personified the nation – portrayed nation as female figure.
- Artist used the female allegory to portray ideas such as liberty, Justice and the Republic.
- Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the national symbol of unity.
- Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
- Germania became the allegory of the German nation. She wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
- Explain by giving four reasons as to why the people, who earlier had welcomed Napoleon, opposed him later? (2012,2013)
Ans. 1) Increased taxation
2) No political freedom under Napoleon.
3) Forced conscription into the French armies.
- Explain the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals? (2011)
Ans. The 1848 revolution of the liberals:
- The 1848 revolution was led by the educated class along with the poor, unemployed starving peasants and workers in many European countries for constitutionalism with national unification.
- Political ideas – In German regions large number of political associations came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for the all German National Assembly.
- Social ideas – A large number of women had participated actively and formed their own associations and struggled for right to vote.
- Economic ideas – Liberals struggled for abolition of serfdom and bonded labor and wanted freedom of market.
- Describe the various measures and practices introduced by revolutionaries to unite the French. (2011,2013)
Ans. Measures and practices introduced by revolutionaries:
- The ideas of la Patrie & le-Citoyen emphasized the nation of united community enjoying equal rights under the constitution.
- New French flag, the tricolor was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed National Assembly.
- New hymns were composed and martyrs commemorated.
- Internal customs and duties were abolished.
- Uniform system of weight and measures were adopted.
- Regional dialects were discouraged and French was written & spoken un Paris.
- Any other relevant points. (Any four points to be explained).
- How did Romanticism seek to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment during the 18th century in Europe. (2011,2012)
Ans. 1) It glorified folk art and vernacular languages.
2) Criticized the glorification of reason and science.
3) Focused on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings.
4) Created a sense of collective heritage and a common culture past.
- “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles”. Justify this statement. (2011,2013)
Ans. In the administrative field Napoleon introduced a number of revolutionary principles:
- He wanted to make the whole system rational and efficient. In 1804, he introduced a new civil code known as the Napoleonic Code which did away with all privileges based on birth.
- He established equality before law.
- Secured the right to property.
- He simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and menial dues. In towns guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication system was improved.
Thus though he destroyed democracy for coming to power, but in administration he did introduce revolutionary principles.
- Explain any three conditions of the contract on the basis of which had indentured labor worked. (2011)
- No right of laborer was specified.
- Employer could bring criminal charges again the laborer.
- Employer could punish and jail them.
- What does the term ‘Liberalism’ mean? What did it mean to different classes and people? (2011,2013)
Ans. Term liberalism derives from Latin root ‘libber’ meaning free. It meant differently to people.
Middle class : It stood for freedom of individual and equality of all before law.
Politically : Emphasized government by Consent.
In general : Inviolability of private property.
- Explain how the decade of 1830s was of great economic hardship in Europe. Explain the role of women in Vietnam as warriors and workers. (2011,2013)
Ans. 1) In first half of 19th century saw enormous increase in population all over Europe.
2) There were more sectors of jobs than employment.
3) Migration of population of rural areas to cities to live in overcrowded slum.
4) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from machine made goods from England.
5) Import was more in textiles.
6) In Europe aristocracy enjoyed power but peasants struggled under burden of feudal dues and obligations.
7) Rise of prices or an year of bad harvest caused pauperism in towns and country.
- Explain the objectives of “Treaty of Vienna” of 1815. (2011,2012)
Ans. Objects of treaty of Vienna.
- Undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during Napoleonic wars.
- Bourbon dynasty`s rule was restored.
- France lost the annexed territories
- Series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion.
- Prussia was given important new territories on its frontiers.
60.Explain any four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere. (2012,2013)
Ans. Four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere:
- Liberalism stood for the freedom of the
- Abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- Introduction of a system of weight and measures.
- Abolition of tariff barriers.
- Creation of unified economic territory for the free movement of goods, people and capital.
61.How did nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerge? Describe. (2011,2013)
Ans. 1) Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional division.
2) They spoke French for purpose of diplomacy and in high society.
3) Industrialization began in England in second half of the Eighteenth Century but in France and Germany states it occurred only during 19th century. In its wake, new social groups came in to being.
4) It was among the educated liberal middle class that ideas of national unity following abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
|1 MARK QUESTIONS|
- Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognized Greece as an independent nation. (2016)
Ans. Treaty of 1832, Constantinople.
- What was the meaning of liberalism in early nineteenth century in Europe? (2016)
Ans. LIBERALISM-stood for freedom for individual and equality for all before the laws.
- What area was known as the Balkans? (2013)
Ans. The vast territory lying between the Black Sea and Adriatic Sea comprising the modern states of Romania, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro was known as the Balkans.
- State two important political and constitutional changes which came in the wake of the French revolution. (2014)
Ans. 1) The French revolution gave the people the concept of ‘nation’.
2) Transfer of sovereignty from the monarch to a body of French citizens, i.e., National Assembly.
- Why was the Treaty of Vienna drawn up in 1815? (2011)
Ans. To restore monarchy.
- Who was proclaimed German Emperor after its unification? (2011)
Ans. The Prussian King – William I.
- Who led protest movement against the protestants in Ireland ? (2013)
Ans. Wolfe Tone.
- Which allegory represented nation in France ? (2011)
- Give to symbols of French Revolution personified liberty. (2011)
Ans. Torch of Enlightenment and the Charter of Rights of Man.
- Give two measures adopted by the French Revolutionaries to forge a sense of active identity. (2013)
Ans. French Tri-color flag and composition of hymns.
- What is Ottoman Empire ? (2011)
Ans. The empire established by Turkey is known as Ottoman empire.
- Mention two ways in which Europe benefitted from French rule. (2012)
Ans. The feudal system was abolished and uniform laws and standardized weights and measures were introduced.
- By the 1790`s the French armies marched into which countries ? (2011)
Ans. They marched into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy.
- Who were called serfs? (2014)
Ans. Serfs were poor peasants who were bound to the vast estate owned by aristocrats.
- What is meant by allegory? (2012)
Ans. When an abstract idea like freedom, liberty, envy etc. is expressed through a person or a thing, it is called allegory.
- Where did the industrialization first begin in Europe? (2011)
- The famous battle of Dien Bien Phu took place in which year? (2013)
- What is the main contribution of the French Revolutionary to the world? (2012)
Ans. Led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of citizen.
- What were the immediate results of the July 1830 revolution? (2011)
Ans. 1) The Bourbon king who had been restored to power by the Congress of Vienna were overthrown by the revolutionaries and constitutional monarchy.
2) Belgium broke away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands.
- Artists of the French Revolution personalized liberty by symbols. Give two such symbols. (2013)
Ans. 1) Torch of Enlightenment. 2) Charter of Rights of Man.
- Give two measures adopted by the French revolutionaries to forge a sense of collective identity. (2011)
Ans. a) Replacing the standard royal flag by the new French tricolor flag.
- b) Composition of new hymns and commemoration of martyrs.
- What were the allegories of the German nation and republic of France known as? (2012)
Ans. 1) German nation : Germania.
2) French nation/France : Marianne.
- List name of any three Balkan states which earlier constitution a part of the Ottoman empire. (2011)
Ans. a) Bulgaria b) Greece c) Romania
- What factors gave rise to spirit of nationalism? (2011)
Ans. Various factors such as common race, language, religion, aims and culture gave rise of nationalism.
- List the new social groups which were came into being as a result of the industrial revolution. (2014)
Ans. 1) Working class population 2) Middle class.
- Give four symbols used by the French revolutionaries t0 signify ‘Liberty’. (2012)
Ans. a) Broken chain b) Red cap
- c) Cockade d) Tricolor flag
27.What was the major issue taken up by the liberal nationalists? (2015)
Ans. Major issues taken up by the liberal nationalists was freedom of the Press.
- What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional aneroid due to French Revolution In Europe? (2015)
Ans. The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French Citizen.
- what was the main of the French revolutionaries? (2015)
Ans. The main aim of French revolutionaries was:
To create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
- What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe? (2015)
Ans. The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French Citizen.
- In which year Treaty of Constantinople which recognized Greece as an independent nation, was signed in ? (2011)
- In which year was Napoleon defeated ? (2012)
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